Saturday, August 31, 2019

To What Extent Do Sociologists Agree That Religion Is a Force for Social Change?

To what extent do Sociologists agree that religion is a force for social change? Throughout history, there has been an on-going debate as to whether or not religion is a conservative force, or a force for social change. Whilst many Sociologists such as Durkheim, see religion as a positive conservative force; creating social harmony and solidarity, others disagree claiming religion to be a strong force for social change and as neo-Marxist Otto Maduro believes, religion has the power to initiate revolutionary change.Firstly, both Functionalism and Marxism takes on the approach that religion is a conservative force as both hold the view that religion aids society, in terms of allowing it to stay within its existing practices. However, the two perspectives disagree on why and how religion helps to do this. Functionalist, Durkheim stated that religion is essential in creating shared norms and values. He claimed that practices of religion and in the law, help people to live their lives.In modern Western society there are thirteen bishops in the House of Lords, who all influence which laws are made and passed, in accordance with Christian teachings. Such issues as abortion, euthanasia, and divorce are discussed and decisions are made about them, which are influenced by the church. Through this system of having a religious guidance, a value consensus is created, by which most of society accepts. This is also known as a collective consciousness which Durkheim taught, formed â€Å"social solidarity†; leading to a harmonious and stable environment for people to live in.Durkheim and many other Functionalists viewed social solidarity as highly important, as they believed it allowed people to feel socially supported reducing the risk of people feeling a sense of anomie. Durkheim himself was very focused on the â€Å"sacred† and â€Å"profane†. He claimed that religious procedures are something which societies see as being divine. For example, a supernatu ral being such as an omnipotent God, would be sacred. However, not only that but something does not have to be scared for it to be divine, thus meaning, as the Bible is full of religious teachings it is a divine object.Durkheim emphasised that divine matters, cause strong feelings of respect and defence. These strong beliefs can cause passionate emotions of dedication and encouragement thus establishing group solidarity; again ruling out the sense of anomie. The Functionalist argued that in a more profane manor, the church unites the community by having events like, tea afternoons, fates, jumble etc. This way the church is permitting people to give something back to their society but also receive help or companionship if they need it. Nevertheless, Durkheim is criticized for discarding the idea of a sacred being, being the main attribute of religion.On the other hand, Neo-Marxist Otto Maduro observes how religion contains the authority to inspire a revolt thus generating social chan ge. Maduro refereed to the â€Å"liberation theology† to put his view forward. Between the 1950’s and 1960’s, South America was largely Catholic but many priests started to separate themselves from the Catholic Church; claiming that it was their duty to assist and liberate those who were being oppressed. This is when the â€Å"liberation theology† first started to be taught. These teachings opposed the current situation; leading to a revolution.Oscar Romero was a Catholic bishop who spoke out about the injustice of so many people, and for this he was assonated. His death sparked a huge amount of outrage and fury by the people he was trying to help, groups such as the Democratic Revolutionary front united to oppose what the government was doing, in terms of exploiting the people. Maduro used the â€Å"liberation theology† to highlight how religion can perform as a force for social change. Another example, of religion being a force for social change is the Apartheid system in South Africa.This was the legal racial separation of people from1948 until 1993, which meant that various races were separated into different districts and  discriminated  against in coherence with their colour. White people had priority over housing, jobs, education, and political power, whereas the coloured people were forced to live in poverty and suffer. Reverend Trevor Huddleston travelled to South Africa and spoke out peacefully against the Apartheid, which soon led to his arrest but also put a lot of attention on what was occurring in South Africa for other countries to take notice of.Soon after the arrest, Western democratic countries put into place anti-apartheid policies and took action. South Africa was forbidden from sporting events and trading was made more difficult for them, forcing for them to come to an arrangement. By 1980 the Apartheid had completely broken down and black South Africans were freed. Desmond Tutu then became the first ever black Arch Bishop, underlining how significantly religion had led to social change, for the better. Conversely, Marxists view religion as acting as a conservative force because they propose it prevents revolutionary change.Marx argued that religion is an important form of social control. All through history the church has acted in such a way that people conform to it. This was done through God and Hell, which were exercised as a deterrent. The people in power quickly realised that religion had a great hold over the population and so it became part of â€Å"the power group†. For example, Kings used to give money or land to the church in exchange, the church would preach the peasants whatever the monarchy told them to. Even in today’s society, Queen Elizabeth still has the title â€Å"Defender of the faith† and she is also head of the Church of England.Illustrating that those in power, still have control over the church, and what the republic hear. Marx explo red how the dominant ideology was conveyed through sermons, and Bible teachings. These sermons and Bible teachings could be said to consist of a false hope for some people. Many of the Bible stories communicate that idea that if you are poor in this life and you suffer, when you die you will be rewarded by God in Heaven. These promises of a perfect afterlife, keep the working classes in their place; reducing their aspiration to change society.The Caste system in India is a good model of how religion keeps people in their places. The Hindu Caste system separates the people into four different classes, depending on their occupation and family background. The Kshatriyas are the top class and according to the traditional Hindu principles, they are there to protect the people. The Chandalas also known as the untouchables are the lowest class, and are discriminated against as they are believed not to follow the â€Å"true† Hindu faith. It used to be that these people were not allow ed to walk around the village or city during day time, or speak to anyone other than other Untouchables.The Cate system was enforced through law books, religious teachings, kings and the threatening of being punished in this life and the next if you question which class you are placed in to; again preventing people from changing their social conditions due to fear of God but leaving the alienated. In contrast to this, Althusser rejects the concept of alienation because he feels it is unscientific, and based on an idealistic theory that human being have â€Å"true self†. Nevertheless, Functionalist Michael Robert Bella stated that in modern societies that state connects with religion to unite the country.This is known as a â€Å"Civil religion†. Through creating a religion around the idea of a nation state, the religion acts as a value consensus; creating social solidarity. For example, in America the people pledge their allegiance to the flag, to honour their country a nd to God. On the dollar bills, the words â€Å"In God we trust† are printed, to remind people that God is there for them no matter what. Bella accentuates that religion is not a force for social change as it united a society and makes it stronger as it holds something in common, that being a belief in God.On the contrary, Neo-Marxist Gramsci looked into Hegemony, which is the way in which the ruling class maintain their privileged positions by making them seemed justified. In this instance, Gramsci looks at how hegemony occurs through religious ideas, rather than coercion. The ruling class rely heavily on the majority of the population consenting to their rule. During the 1920’s Gramsci observed that there was a large amount of traditional moral control of the Church in helping to gain support for Mussolini’s fascist regime in Italy.This highlights how the ruling class and religion combined to reach a certain goal, and to achieve the population’s approva l. However, Gramsci also specified that religion does have to potential to develop and either support or challenge the ruling class. For example, The Archbishop of Canterbury recently published his highly critical feelings of the Conservative parties polices. Also the â€Å"Stop Capitalism† campaign outside St Pauls Cathedral was primarily supported by the church; allowing the protesters to correspond their thoughts on our society.This stressed Gramsci’s point that the church is not directly under the influence of the ruling class, and so does have the potential to create social change if an anti-hegemony situation occurs. As well at this, Functionalist Parsons, declared that religion is a positive force in times of uncertainty. People turn to religion to answer those â€Å"ultimate questions† about life, such as â€Å"What is the point? † Parsons maintained that in situations like death, marriage and birth, people turn to God for answers and hope. Religi on does not create social change, as it is not intending to do so.Religion is there for when a person is scared, looking for salvation or just needs someone to care about them. Similar to Parsons, Malinowski, who was an anthropologist, carried out a study to find out if all societies had a religion. He travelled to an ancient society in The Trobiand. Malinowski observed that when the men went out of the lagoon to fish, entering into the open water, it was seen as a highly dangerous event, which not everyone would come back from. He then went on to see that before the men left the lagoon a ritual of yam giving took place.It appeared to Malinowski, that this was a religious ceremony which gave consolation to the families as well as wider society. Consequently, a Functionalist may assert the point that religion does not provide social change, as again it is there to produce social solidarity, in the way that it aids people, giving them something in common again to minimise the risk of anyone feeling unwanted or alone. Conversely, recent research on the Trobiand islands has challenged Malinowski’s research and his interpretation of the meaning of yam giving.Whilst carrying out his research Malinowski did not speak directly to the people, he simply observed; placing his own version of events onto the situation. Modern research has shown, through the use if interpertistic techniques, that the yam giving was a marriage intension, much like a proposal rather than being worried about the fishermen. The modern researches were not looking at what the action was, unlike Malinowski, they were looking at what the meaning behind the action was (commonly known as Verstehen. ) This new research brings to light the fact that these people, who appeared to have no religion, were living happily with each other.This could them further suggest that if religion was introduced to them, their society could change because it something they have never needed to consider before, co nsequently implying that religion could be a force for social change, if it is introduced as a completely alien topic. In addition, Weber wrote â€Å"The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism† examining how Protestantism was a huge part of how society changed into a capitalist economy. He claims that the values of ascetic Calvinist Protestantism shaped a work ethic which encouraged capitalism.Calvinists believed in â€Å"predestination†, the theory that God chooses whether you go to heaven or hell before you are born. This formed a psychological problem for Calvinists, as they did not know if they were one of the â€Å"elect†. As a solution to this they developed a set of values that expressed hard work, frugality and the growth of wealth. These ethics inherently led to the â€Å"spirit of capitalism†, and Weber assured that this is why Capitalism first developed in Northern Europe, where Calvinism and Protestantism were most commanding. Weberâ₠¬â„¢s research is a firm paradigm of religion generating social transformation.His research is still useful when looking at today’s societies, with countries such as Germany and Sweden which converted to Protestantism, and are model countries economically. Whereas, countries which are still Catholic like Spain and Greece are in a financial crisis. Lastly, many feminists view religion as being a patriarchal institution that presents inequalities through religious beliefs; functioning via a patriarchal ideology. Feminist’s dispute that most of the religious organisations are male dominated. Judaism and Catholicism forbid women from becoming priests.Karen Armstrong debates that the clear discrimination against women in this manner, is evidence of women’s demotion. As well as this, in places of worship the two sexes are often segregated, the women being put at the back perhaps behind screen, whilst the men are in the sacred areas. Sometimes women are not allowed to participate in the practices, this maybe reading out a passage or preaching. In the Islamic culture, women are menstruating are not allowed to the Qur’an and could be asked to leave the place of worship all together, so as not to pollute of contaminate the sacred environment.In many of the sacred texts, like the Bible, women are stereotyped as a temptress and blamed for anything that goes wrong, For example, in Genesis Eve creates the fall of humanity by picking the fruit from the forbidden tree of knowledge. This is ironic as the entirety of the Bible stories are supposedly written by men. However, before the rise of Christianity women were not always seen as the males subordinate. Armstrong identifies that in early religions women were central in the beliefs, being the mother of goodness and nature. It wasn’t until Patriarchy began that women lost their godly statuses.This could suggest that when Christianity rose, and people read about the evil of women, Patriarchy was promoted, as women are referred to in the Bible as â€Å"man’s helper†; giving men power to rule over women. Therefore, a feminist may argue that religion does create social change but in a negative way, as it inspired men to take control of women and oppress them, as punishment for their â€Å"sins†. In conclusion, Functionalism and Marxism have strong arguments which describe how religions help to maintain social order and counteract social change.A Marxist may also say social change does not occur through religion, as the ruling class want it to stay the same. Juxtaposing this view, history has revealed that in some extreme cases such as the â€Å"Liberation theology† religion has been a positive force for social change. Whereas, a feminist could say religion has been a negative force for social change as seen throughout the history of women’s oppression. For that reason, I would say religion is a force for social change, but only in extreme conditions where the change happens on a considerable scale.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Reflecting on Wisdom Essay

The one individual that I consider to be very wise is Bishop T.D. Jakes. Even though, I have never met him face-to-face; words spoken by him has inspired mass congregations; as well as me. Opposing to common beliefs, wisdom is not the ability to be knowledgeable about everything, but to a certain extent holding an open mind to additionally enhance comprehensions A wise person considers anything they say before they speak and discuss about area of circumstances he/she knows about and asks questions about the ones he/she are not familiar with. Individuals who have wisdom are inclined to be modest instead of displaying show-offs mentality. A wise individual have a tendency not to be competitive and do not mind if others have the notion to accuse them of being wrong. People with wisdom also know that people will gain knowledge at their own rate and in their own time, therefore not staring down on someone just because they are not equally understood. Wise people have great insight and a g ifted ability to articulate it without belittling or embarrassing others. My favorite characteristic of a wise person is their ability to look beyond what is obvious (especially in unfavorable circumstances) and focus on the subject at hand. It must be also being made aware of that wisdoms come from life encounters, mirror image and/or educational training. Bishop T.D. Jakes holds these characteristics traits as an individual of wisdom. Bishop Jakes uses illustrations from his personal experiences in life, in addition to the lives of others which is under his counseling; Bishop Jakes provides pointed guidance on how to shift from battle to triumph, from prey to conqueror. Motivating and revitalizing direct honesty, this is the ultimate source for those seeking to comprehend and care for the love ones in their lives. This lends a hand decoding individual’s often impenetrable conduct which offers one-on-one approaches for better understanding and therapeutic in a person’s affiliations. Books such as, He-Motions written by Bishop T.D.  Jakes h ave put into words precision and prospect to everyone; which help them strengthen their relationships with themselves, others, and with their Savior. It has also given females the explanations they try to find as they communicate to the men they be devoted to. It may seem unbelievable to some because of the fact; a book causing so many people to get nearer as one in relationships and closer to God. Wisdom is that attribute of spirituality by which creates the greatest potential outcome with the greatest potential measures; through ministry and spirituality. Wisdom and intellect-knowledge are not equivalent, yet are strongly associated. Knowledge is obtained by building up information, but wisdom is effects from the approaching of issues that are learned. Knowledge is the bits and pieces made known through which wisdom put together its formation. An individual not educated possibly will be wiser than the most knowledgeable intellectual in actuality time and again are! While speaking of Bishop’s wisdom, it stands for his capability to formulate flawless conclusions and to accomplish those conclusions by great measures. Bishop in his wisdom makes use of the unlimited knowledge so that he may accomplish his objective in a means which praises God the greatest. All that is done by him seems to be prepared with flawless wisdom. Bishop perceives every thing in its proper relation to everything else, and so He is able to work toward His predestined goals with flawless precision. These are the reason, Bishop T.D. Jakes is known by many as a man of wisdom. He has changed lives through his knowledge of the Bible. There is not any study of more importance or value than a study of the nature and attributes of spirituality. In the past few years, I have been drawn deeper into what is known as, â€Å"The Words of God†. This is the reason why attributes of spirituality is the area, in which I have developed most fully. At the same time, not anything in life worth having was ever gained overnight. Therefore, I feel much work is ahead for me; to fully develop in future years come. Neither knowledge nor wisdom is gained overnight; it is a continuous growth process for years to come.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Ethical Problems associated to Information Technology Essay

Information technology has been continuously booming with new technological products that create a more diverse information environment. There have been dramatic changes associated with the IT, and these changes create ethical problems and upheavals that usually have something to do with ethics. True, there has been technological development in the arena—one that occurs â€Å"when either the technological paradigm is elaborated in terms of improved concepts, theories, and methods, or in instances of the paradigm are improved† (Moor, 2008, p. 27), such as in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and safety. This creates an enormous social impact, and it has led to a technological revolution that considerably takes time and is difficult to predict. Information technology has gone over the introduction stage and the permeation stage. We are on the power stage wherein the technology is readily available, affecting people directly and indirectly. This creates an impact that is superbly enormous; yet, there are always the ethical problems that springs forth in the arena. Ethical problems that surround the self-identity, anonymity, and privacy of a person are always attached when it comes to IT. The technological revolution has a large-scale effect that transforms the society, while affecting the manner in which the society functions (Moor, 2008, p. 29). It is evident that open technological revolutions in open societies still need some enhancements, so that the ethical problems would be controlled and maximized. Main Body There are a number of important issues that surround the technological paradigm of IT, especially in relation to ethics. Some of these are in the form of self-identity, anonymity, as well as privacy. There are also other unethical issues (e. g. , cheating, hacking, wardriving) that are attached to the technological paradigm of IT. Ethical problems in self-identity The self-identity is being constructed according to how the individual interacts with the society and with himself or herself. In the social landscape of modernity, there are numerous major changes in the external social environment that affects the individual during this social transformation. In the age of the IT, people get to have the capacity to reconstruct the universe through the everyday realities and circumstances that take place in their specific worlds. It is a continuous state of affairs that largely creates the self-identity and the personal feelings attached to this paradigm. This new sense of identity are being formed with the intrusion of the IT in a person’s life, and people get to have personal relationship even with people who are unknown to them—people who suddenly pop out in their computer’s screens, with names that may or may not be factual. Personal relationships help form the self-identity, offering opportunities for self-expression and the self-renewal. According to Giddens (1991), The modern world is a ‘runaway world’: not only is the pace of social change much faster than in any prior system, so also is its scope, and the profoundness with which it affects pre-existing social practices and modes of behavior. (Giddens, 1991, p. 16) With this, it is apparent that the IT becomes an active component in the continuous transformation of a person’s identity, as it creates and affects the social practices and the modes of a person’s behavior. Thus, problems that affect the personal life of the individual could affect not only the self-identity, but the social practices and the environment as a whole. Ethical problems in terms of anonymity and privacy, for example, can lead to an identity that is blemished because of unethical conduct. Despite the fact that people always carry discursive interpretations of their behavior, this practical consciousness drives the person into creating or destroying the ontological security of human activity in a culture. As an effect, people tend to write comments anonymously while hiding their true identities. Ethical problems in anonymity According to the article that Richard Perez-Pena (2010) wrote entitled ‘News Sites Rethink Anonymous Online Comments’, it says that Internet users usually make use of the digital disguise, revealing their power and their sentiments without acknowledging their true identities to the viewers. This constitutes a sort of freedom for the digital users, and this is most typical in news sites, wherein the viewers are allowed to post comments without indicating their true identities, keeping their privacy in a world that is being presented in public. As indicated in the article, â€Å"Anyone could weigh in and remain anonymous† (Perez-Pena, 2010, p. 1), and this leads to the question on whether or not viewers of Internet sites should be allowed to remain anonymous when dictating their comments and suggestions. This is a very significant ethical problem associated to IT, since it has been ethically accepted that any type of idea or sentiment should be associated to the respectful person who has formed the idea. According to Arianna Huffington, founder of The Huffington Post, Anonymity is just the way things are done. It’s an accepted part of the Internet, but there’s no question that people hide behind anonymity to make vile or controversial comments. (Perez-Pena, 2010, p. 1) It has, therefore, been advised that viewers should indicate their factual names, especially when making a significant commentary about the society. They should use their real names, and this may be done by requiring people to register first before posting their commentaries. Ethical problems in privacy According to the article that Scott Rosenberg (2010) wrote entitled ‘Online Comments Need Moderation, Not Real Names’, there is also the statement that defines how newspaper website managers have been reacting in terms of anonymity and privacy keeping. As stated, â€Å"If only they could make people sign their real names, surely the atmosphere would improve† (Rosenberg, 2010, p. 1). Online conversation spaces make media outlets turn the common software on and then leave them as it is, as if the discussions would â€Å"magically take care of themselves† (Rosenberg, 2010, p. 1). The problem, however, is that the commenters should not be faceless and should carry identities that are open for the other viewers. This problem is in the identity system, with the Web having no identity system that would ethically reconnect the idea to the person who has declared it. As stated in the article, The Web has no identity system, and though the FBI can track you down if the provocation is dire enough, and if you get editors mad enough they can track you down, too, most media companies aren’t going to waste the time and money. (Rosenberg, 2010, p. 1) Ethical privacy problems can also be in the form of ‘hacking’ or â€Å"using unauthorized access to an information system† (Floridi, 2008, p. 43). This indulges privacy and confidentiality. Conclusion There are other ethical problems associated with the IT of the modern social world, such as using the new technology in order to cheat one’s taxes, or deviating the user from his or her true name or identity. It can also be in the form of wardriving wherein people try to connect wirelessly to other people’s networks (Moor, 2008, p. 33). All these unethical conducts can create an enormous social impact that leads to technological revolution that can contract IT in its power stage. With proper management, it can develop the IT into something that is more powerful and enormous, without the ethical problems that have large-scale effects on the society. It is evident, therefore, that open societies through the IT still need some enhancements, so that the ethical problems would be controlled and maximized. References Floridi, L. (2008). Information ethics: its nature and scope. In Eds. Jeroen van den Hoven and John Weckert’s Information technology and moral philosophy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Moor, J. (2008). Why we need better ethics for emerging technologies. In Eds. Jeroen van den Hoven and John Weckert’s Information technology and moral philosophy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Perez-Pena, R. (2010, April 11). News sites rethink anonymous online comments. Retrieved May 7, 2010, from The New York Times Company database: http://www. nytimes. com/2010/04/12/technology/12comments. html. Rosenberg, S. (2010, April 13). Online comments need moderation, not real names. Retrieved May 7, 2010, from Salon Media Group, Inc. database: http://www. salon. com/news/feature/2010/04/13/newspaper_online_comments_moderation_open2010.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Lab report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 14

Lab Report Example Once the cuvette is filled and locked. Place it in the colorimeter and read the first wavelength. This will be your base reading that you use to determine the intensity of color in the upcoming readings. Once that is read, you can then clean the cuvette again. You will get a reading for each setting on the Calorimeter (430nm, 470nm, 565nm,635nm). You will use the lowest percentage reading and stick with that setting for the duration of the experiment. You will then start using your color solution to get readings and determine the intensity of color. You will begin doing this by adding more dye to the solution. You will start at 10% and work your way up to 100% .Each time you add a percentage of water to the solution you will place the cuvette into the calorimeter and read the results. Each time you finish getting the results, clean the cuvette and begin to do it again to all other percentages. The graph gives the best fit line, or the straightest line is one that predicts vs concentration. This graph however, does not match the equation of Beer-Lambert’s law. The x-axis of the Beer-Lambert’s equation represents the concentration while the y-axis represents the absorbance. Lambert-Beer Law is used to determine concentration [M, mM, or  mM] from Absorbance [No unit], if the molar extinction coefficient  e  [M-1cm-1] of a compound and the path length of the cuvette [cm] that the distance light passes through the solution are known.  The formula  of this relationship: The possible limitations of spectroscopy used in this investigation are the narrowness of spectra and effect of stray radiations that might have made the measurements of absorbance upon slit width and wavelength setting and the fact that it is not possible to know molecular weight of substance could also affect the investigation. The goal of this experiment is to find the factors that affect the intensity of color. This was done

Florida Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Florida - Research Paper Example The hottest temperature (43 C) occurred on June 29, 1931 in Monticello1, while the coldest occurred on February 13, 1899 25 miles away in Tallahassee1. Average temperatures for late July is between 32-35 C, whereas average temperatures for late January is between (4-7C) in northern Florida to averagely 13C in southern Florida1. In 2007, Florida's population was 18,251,2434. The population increases by 321, 647 or 1.8% from 2005. Florida is expanding by an average of 26,803 every month, 6700 every week and 975 on a daily basis5. Additionally, Florida is the third-fastest-growing state5. However, in 2000 the Germans possesses 11.8% of Florida's population, the Irish 10.3%, the English 9.2%, the Americans 8%, the Italian 6.3%, the French 2.8%, the Polish 2.7% and the Scottish 1.8%6. In 2000 76.91% of the residents age 5 and older only spoke English at home as their primary language; whereas 16.46% spoke Spanish and French-based creole languages was communicated between 1.38% of the population7. Moreover, French was spoken by 0.83%, G3erman by 0.59% and Italian at 0.44% of all residents7. The public education system of Florida researched that over 200 first languages other than English is spoken in the homes of students. Religion The main religion is Christian (81% of the population), followed by Jewish (4%) and 1% believe in other religions while 14% are non-religious1. Economy The GDP of Florida reached $713.5 billion in 2006, making it the fourth largest economy in the United States8. Personal income arrived at $36,665, thus ranking the 20th9. This is largely created by high tourism levels. Warm weather and many beaches draw about 60 million tourists every year1. The second largest industry is created by agriculture; especially due to producing citrus fruit. In fact it produces 67% of all citrus in the US in 200610. The third largest industry is formed by phosphate mining. It produces 75% of phosphate required by farmers in United States and 25% of the world supply11. Opa-locka Opa-locka is a 4.5 square miles12 city resided in Miami-Dade County, Florida. 4.3 square miles of it is land while 0.1 square miles is water12. Moreover, the population in 2000 reached 14,951 and has increased to 15, 327 in 200413. The city was developed by Glenn Curtis and the name "Opa-locka" is a contraction of "Opa-tisha-woka-locka", which means "The high land north of the little river on which there is a camping place"14. Demographics In 2000 there were 14,951 people, 4890 households and 3,437 families living in the city15. The city contains of 22.83% White (3.1% Non-Hispanic Whites), 69.64% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.6% other races and 3.35% from two or more races16. Out of the 4890 households, 41.2% of them had children under the age of 18 residing with them, 28.4% were married couples living together, 35.2% were female householder with no husband and 29.7% had no families1. Regularly, the household size was 2.97, whereas the average family size was 3.521. The total population is constructed of 34.6% under the age of 18, 12.3% from the age of 18 until 24, 26.8% from the age of 25 until 44, 17,7% were between 45 and 64 years of age

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

An article for the Australasian Journal of Early Childhood (AJEC) Assignment

An article for the Australasian Journal of Early Childhood (AJEC) - Assignment Example Teachers in these environments have the opportunity to use action research as a method of improving the interaction of students to the environment in the context of independent study. Figure 1: Children Engaging the Natural Environment in a Forest School (Cummings, 2010) Creating Quality Learning Environments Logan, Press, and Sumsion (2012) discuss the idea of discourses and gazes as ways of creating a discussion about policy and defining quality. Discourses involve the literature and communications in which the construction of human social interaction is framed and formed, taking from basic policy the cues on how to behave as prescribed by society. The gaze is a way in which to form philosophy through grouping different discourses together and seeing the world through a specific lens. The philosophies that are central to encouraging sustainability and environmental responsibility are enhanced through the use of discourses and gaze. ... st is that they have a strong sense of identity through feeling secure in their world and the second in that they learn how to effectively communicate. Forest schools use a constructivist approach to learning as they are concerned with the processes through which children will learn through constructing their own learning experiences. The three aspects used in the Forest Schools are: using the forest as a context for learning, using materials from the forest for learning, and the use of the five senses as well as building on their natural curiosity in order to construct learning (Cumming, 2010). The process of learning transforms into increased effectiveness of defining their sense of self within the context of identity and within the context of the world environment. Action Research The concept of action research as a means of self critique and transformation provides for creating new and better worlds as time passes. MacNaughton and Smith (2001) discuss action research in relations hip with post-modernism in which there is a pursuit of ‘truth’. Through techniques of action research, teachers are continually improving their influence in the classroom by using what they learn in their practice to transform their means of communication and influence. The truth becomes an organic form of learning in which discovery by students and teachers allow for constant improvement and change. Figure 2: Teachers in a Forest School (Forest Education Initiative, 2013) Action research can help to transform a number of different areas in practice, but in learning to create philosophies about the world and influence the socialization of children a professional is helping to shape the future through beliefs and traditions that can influence a lifetime. Literature from the Lady Gowrie

Monday, August 26, 2019

Global information communication and technology Essay

Global information communication and technology - Essay Example The world economic growth report which covers the economic evaluation of 138 countries gives a very comprehensive report about the impact of the Information Communication and Technological development on the different sectors of national growth. For this project report Singapore, which stood second in the world ranking was chosen as the country for expansion of the new networking application over cell phone network powered by Microsoft (World Economic Forum, 2011). Windows Mobile in Healthcare Solution The global industries are day by day growing more mobile in business. The robust and secured connectivity are required in every field of work. The healthcare industry worldwide is constantly trying to reduce the cost and deliver excellent services to the customers. Automated services are deployed by Windows Mobile based services from Microsoft which helps in several processes of Physical Order entry and electronic health records at a very low cost and provide service whenever it is req uired. The healthy security feature of Windows Mobile gives better patients privacy and security of data and also remote access to patient care system.The easy to use Windows Mobile powered by Microsoft Visual Studio gives a better support for more mobiles and database handling technique in a very secured and efficient way (Value Prism Consulting, 2006, p. 11). Information Communication and Technology sector is the major contributor of Singapore economy.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

NURSING ASSIGNMENT Continuing care - Incontinence Essay

NURSING ASSIGNMENT Continuing care - Incontinence - Essay Example It shall analyse how care was planned and delivered in order to meet the identified continuing needs in relation to evidence gathered from literature. It shall then reflect on the outcomes of care delivery for the continuing care needs identified. The patient, for this paper, shall be referred to with the pseudonym John Wilson. He is 82 years and was admitted into the Accidents and Emergency Unit after suffering a fall. He was later transferred to the medical ward to help him recover from his fall. He had a previous history of prostatectomy and was having problems with incontinence. He showed early signs of dementia, which however did not interfere with the nurse’s communication with the patient. The patient’s wife Barbara also assisted in answering questions about the patient. He lives with his wife and is often visited by his daughter and son-in-law. He needs continuing care because his mobility is compromised and cannot easily make it to and from the bathroom to relieve himself during urinary urgencies. He needs continuing care in order to help manage his urination, in order to prevent him from withdrawing from society, and eventually to keep him from being depressed. The continuing needs of the patient were assessed by the nurse and the other members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). The nurse and the members of the multidisciplinary team (physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and the attending physician) assessed his risk for experiencing another fall. His previous fall broke his right hip; and he underwent hip replacement surgery soon after. He is now undergoing physical and rehabilitative therapy in order to gradually regain his mobility. He could get himself independently out of bed, but he has to use a walker in order to move about. He also needs assistance with his activities of daily living, but he is slowly gaining independence in carrying out these activities. With therapy and rehabilitation, he is slowly

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Social Organization Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social Organization Analysis - Essay Example Another fallacy presented is fallacy of appeal to pity. The video tries to encourage people to donate by making them feel sorry for the victims of animal cruelty. The viewers are led to believe that giving financial support to the organization will help promote the plight of the poor animals. The organization may be guilty of using content fallacies. Although it gave information on the number of animals being abused every single hour and the number of animals which were rescued last year, one does not have any way of confirming the said data because the source of the figures were not given. The arguments presented may make us suspicious because the figures could very well be invented just to get a lot of contributions. The fallacies have a strong impact on the aim of the organization to encourage people to make a donation. I think that the fallacies used are very effective into moving the viewers to action by calling right after watching the video. There was even a statement which wa s shown, â€Å"For hundreds of others, help came too late.† The statement used would make viewers react at once; else it would be too late for the â€Å"hundreds† of animals. The impact of this is that there seems to be a sense of urgency in the issue being presented.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Introduction quiz Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Introduction quiz - Assignment Example According to Bouvier, Craig & Gossman (1994), the RÃ ¼tlischwur was a solemn oath taken by the cantons ancestors in the year 1291 while at the Riitli. The oath was meant to task the ancestors with the role of controlling law and justice in the area. The physical location of Switzerland made Switzerland confederation to receive a lot of external pressure from the neighboring states. This, together with politics of the region resulted to enhanced mandate of the confederation to be the highest body for internal and external interventions (Bouvier, Craig & Gossman, 1994). True. According to Bouvier, Craig & Gossman (1994), the collaborative interest of the three cities to protect their autonomy from external forces and to secure its people provides that the sovereignty lies in the autonomy. This is made possible by flexible constitutions that allows for easy amendments. True. Switzerland was created with the need for each canton to maintain its autonomy, and preserve its culture. The culture of all the cities thus plays a major role in contributing to the overall culture of Switzerland (Bouvier, Craig & Gossman, 1994). True. The 16th century reformation of the three cities continues to shape the culture of Switzerland. However, the flexibility of Switzerland’s constitution allows for adjustments and changes (Bouvier, Craig & Gossman, 1994). Calvin expelled religious leaders and teachers who encouraged wrongdoing by claiming that wrongdoing committed unwillingly it cannot be considered a sin. This made people to be more cautious with their behavior. He also trained people on the importance of political responsibility (Bouvier, Craig & Gossman, 1994). Henry Dunant’s strategy to have leaders involved in community activities meant to minimize human suffering was similar to Calvin’s quest to protect the people from political interference by ensuring that politicians take responsibility (Bouvier, Craig &

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Pedagogy Essay Example for Free

Pedagogy Essay Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Portuguese: Pedagogic do Proudly), written by educator Paulo Fire, proposes a pedagogy with a new relationship between teacher, student, and society. It was first published in Portuguese in 1968, and was translated by Myra Ramose into English and published In 1970. [1] The book is considered one of the foundational texts of critical pedagogy. Dedicated to what Is called the oppressed and based on his own experience helping Brazilian adults to read and write, Fire includes a detailed Marxist class analysis in his exploration of the relationship between what he calls the colonizer ND the colonized. In the book Fire calls traditional pedagogy the banking model because it treats the student as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge, like a piggy bank. However, he argues for pedagogy to treat the learner as a co-creator of knowledge. The book has sold over 750,000 copies worldwide. [2] Translated into several languages, most editions of Pedagogy of the Oppressed contain at least one introduction/foreword, a preface, and four chapters. The first chapter explores how oppression has been Justified and how it is overcome through a mutual process between the oppressor and the oppressed (oppressors-oppressed distinction). Examining how the balance of power between the colonizer and the colonized remains relatively stable, Fire admits that the powerless in society can be frightened of freedom. He writes, Freedom Is acquired by conquest, not by gift. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly. Freedom is not an ideal located outside of man; nor is it an idea which becomes myth. It is rather the indispensable condition for the quest for human completion. (47) According to Fire, freedom will be the result of praxis † Informed action † when a balance between theory and practice is achieved. The second chapter examines the banking approach to education † a metaphor used by Fire that suggests students are considered empty bank accounts that should remain open to deposits made by the teacher. Fire rejects the banking approach, claiming It results In the demutualization of both the students and the teachers. In addition, he argues the banking approach stimulates oppressive attitudes and practices in society. Instead, Fire advocates for a more world- mediated, mutual approach to education that considers people Incomplete. According to Fire, this authentic approach to education must allow people to be aware of their incompleteness and strive to be more fully human. This attempt to use education as a meaner of consciously shaping the person and the society is called centralization, a term first coined by Fire in this book. Dimensions of human praxis. This is in line with the Lavabo Viewer Pintos use of the word/idea in his Consciences Realized National which Fire contends is using the concept without the pessimistic character originally found in Jaspers (Note 15, Chapter 3) in reference to Karl Jaspers notion of Gratuitousness. The last chapter proposes dialogs as an instrument to free the colonized, through the use of cooperation, unity, organization and cultural synthesis (overcoming problems in society to liberate human beings). This is in contrast to antispasmodics which use conquest, manipulation, cultural invasion, and the concept of divide and rule. Fire suggests that populist dialogue is a necessity to revolution; that impeding dialogue dehumidifies and supports the status quo. This is but one example of the dichotomies Fire identifies in the book. Others include the student-teacher dichotomy and the colonizer-colonized dichotomy. In his article for the conservative-leaning City Journal, Sol Stern[3] notes that Pedagogy of the Oppressed ignores the traditional touchstones of Western education (e. G. , Rousseau, John Dewey, or Maria Interiors) and contains virtually none of the information typically found in traditional teacher education (e. G. , no discussion of curriculum, testing, or age-appropriate learning). To the contrary, Fire rejects traditional education as official knowledge that intends to oppress. Spread[edit]Since the publication of the English edition in 1970, Pedagogy of the Oppressed has achieved near-iconic status in Americas teacher-training programs, according to Sol Stern. A 2003 study looking at the curricula of 16 schools of education, 14 of them among the top in the country, found that Pedagogy of the Oppressed was one of the most frequently assigned texts in their philosophy of education courses. Such course assignments are a large part of the reason the book has sold almost 1 million copies, which is a remarkable number for a book in the education field. [3] Influences[edit]The work was strongly influenced by Franz Fanons and Karl Marx. One of Firers dictums is that: there neither is, nor has ever been, an educational practice in zero space-time†neutral in the sense of being committed only to preponderantly abstract, intangible ideas. According to later critics, heirs to Firers ideas have taken it to mean that since all education is political, leftist math teachers who care about the oppressed have a right, indeed a duty, to use a pedagogy that, in Firers words, does not conceal † in fact, which proclaims † its own political

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction Essay Example for Free

Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction Essay PEMDAS stands for Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction. PEMDAS corresponds the right order of numerical operations that has to be used when solving mathematical problems. Following that definition, PEMDAS implies that expressions inside the parentheses should be evaluated first. If there are multiple parenthesis and brackets in the equation, the rule of thumb indicates working from the inside going out. After which, those with exponents are handled. Next, multiplication and division are performed. These two are actually ranked equally and should be carried out from left to right. Them being equal, you can evaluate the expression as you go along. You can multiply or divide from left to right, depending upon to what is called for. The same is true with addition and subtraction, which comprises the last part of the sequence. Just like multiplication and division, these two regarded as equal. It means that you can perform either addition or subtraction as required from left to right. PEMDAS is the universally accepted way of solving mathematical problems. It ensures a better flow of operation within the equation and is generally considered the most logical way to solve a problem. For example, the simple operation 2+(3-1)24 will generate 18 if PEMDAS is used. Evaluating this equation from left to right isnt really possible, because you dont have anything to square unless you evaluate whats inside the parenthesis first. If PEMDAS is not applied, mathematical problems will show different results. 5+32 is equal to 11 applying PEMDAS. But if it is merely evaluated from left to right, the answer becomes 16. Simply put, the use of PEMDAS standardizes the evaluation of algebraic equations and other and mathematical problems. Using it enhances the smooth flow of communication between people as well. We all know how mathematics is important in our daily lives. There are a lot of direct application of mathematics in medicine, engineering, and business. What will happen if doctors dont interpret in the same way a certain mathematical formula provided by pharmaceutical companies to determine the exact dosage of medicine to a patient? Then the results may just be fatal to the patient for all we know.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Causes of Software Project Failure

Causes of Software Project Failure All successful software projects start with the premise that the end result will be successful. The owner of the project initial goal is to deliver on time and on budget. Although these are the primary focus when the project begins, yet is it not more important that the project deliver tangible business and consumer results? A project manager must take both the customer and the project into consideration when performing a software project. Time, thought and much consideration (focus) must be the aim of the project from beginning until completion of the software project. These are primary keys to a projects success. There are many keys that ensure the success of a project many will become familiar to the reader throughout the reading of this paper. Business drivers such as problems or opportunities that maybe encountered in the beginning and throughout the completion of the project are criteria used to measure the benefits of the project. These drivers should be the primary focus when scoping the project and setting the goals of the project. All projects begin with goals in the order of priority directly related to and supported by the business goals. Target goals are put into place to ensure the project meets the specified time and does not deviate more than those allowable in project plan. The customer and the project planner must be in complete agreement on the goal and anticipation of the project before the project begins. An understanding of what the customer expects the success of the project to look like and what measurements will be considered to determine the desired outcome of the project to the customers satisfactions are critical points when the project is started. These issues should be easily understood by all concerned. A successful project must first be defined. Question, how do we define the success of a software project? We could begin by looking at meeting desired cost, schedule, and scope objectives. Was the projects completion date met? Was it within budget guidelines and did it meet the desired specifications? Software project success has often been defined in ways that are measured the day the project was finished. This is not always the case. Some projects exceed the specified date originally set forth at the forefront of the project. This does not mean that the project was a failure because of the time constraints. Many projects require more testing than was originally set forth at the start of the project or more funds that are necessary to ensure the project is a success. One example is the Sydney Opera House (Duncan, W.R.), that cost sixteen times as much to build and took four times as long to complete as the original estimates. Although thought to be a project management disaster ending up producing an enduring and inspiring civic symbol. Would this constitute as a project failure? Project success depends on a combination of product success and project management success. Many project owners define the success of the project by the time of completion. If the project was completed in the specified time it was a success. Ask yourself this question; if the project was completed early or a day or two late with all specifications met did you have a success software project? Or if it was completed on time with continual adjustments after completion, is this a successful project? A project must follow a completion milestone that should allow for each step of the project to fall within specification. All software project should include modification allowances that provide for added research should the project require it. Literature Review Software failure can be defined as the occurrence of either deficient functionality, where the program fails to perform a required function, or deficient performance, where the program performs a required function too slow or in an insufficient manner. (Rutgers Computer Technology Law Journal. Perlman, Daniel T., 1998) We live in a society that depends extensively on computers to accomplish our everyday needs; everything from monitoring patients in hospitals to monitoring our national defense depends primarily on computer software not failing. Bearing in mind their fundamental need for computers to function properly, software project failure rates are among the highest across all industries, however the number of statistical reports analyzing those Failure are lesser then one would expect. This literature review provides an overview of general literature available on this subject, the main of objectives of the evaluation are to establish why software projects fail and the main reasons a project may fail along with what lessons can be learned   to improve software developments in order for them to success in the future. The subject of Software Project Failures is full of books, and papers that  stress Why Software Projects Fail, most of them share numerous characteristics ranging from failure due to incomplete requirements to failure due to an incompetent project manager.   Among the studies examining these failures is the 2009 Standish Group CHAOS Report. The report is a collection of data on project failures in the software industry. Its main goal is to make the industry effective and productive and to illustrate ways to improve its success rates and increase the value of the software investments. Their most recent results were published in April, 2009. The introductory statement in CHAOS Report reads: The Roman bridges of antiquity were very inefficient structures. By modern standards, they used too much stone, and as a result, far too much labor to build. Over the years we have learned to build bridges more efficiently, using few materials and less labor to perform the same task. Tom Clancy (The Sum of All Fears) (The Standish Group, 2009) With use of this quote the CHAOS Report suggests that software developers should adopt bridge builders approach of learning from past mistakes. The report explains that the difference between software failures and bridge failures is that when a bridge fails it is investigated and a report is written on the cause of the failure whereas when a software fails the failures are covered up, ignored, and/or rationalized. As a result, we keep making the same mistakes over and over again. (The Standish Group, 2009) The Standish Group investigated the failure and success rates along with the reasons for success and failure. Their study surveyed four focus groups with IT executives of major companies. The attendees represented a wide variety of industries, including insurance, state and federal government, retail, banking, securities, manufacturing and service. Three distinct outcomes, called Resolutions, were what the subsequent report divides projects into. Project Resolution Types 1 (Success), 2 (Challenged), and 3 (Impaired). Resolution Type 1 was when a project was a success; it was completed on time and on budget, with all the functionalities and features intact.   The projects that fell in this category only amounted to 16.2%.  Resolution Type 2 was when a project was completed, however it was over budget or over time, and missing some or all of the functionalities and features that were originally requested.   52.7% of all studied projects fell into the Resolution Type 2 category. R esolution Type 3 were projects that were abandoned at some point during the development cycle, consequently becoming total losses.   A staggering 31.1% of all the projects studied fell into this category.   The Standish Group further divided these results by large, medium and small establishments. A large establishment was one with greater than $500 million dollars in revenue per year, a medium was defined as having $200 million to $500 million in yearly revenue, and a small was from $100 million to $200 million. However the statistics for failure were equally discouraging in companies of all sizes. The most important aspect of the research is discovering why projects fail. The report isolated that the top five factors found in successful projects were: user involvement, executive management support, clear statement of requirements, proper planning, and realistic expectations. These indicators were extracted from surveyed IT executive managers of their opinions about why projects succeed. Project Success Factors % of Responses 1. User Involvement 15.90% 2. Executive Management Support 13.90% 3. Clear Statement of Requirements 13.00% 4. Proper Planning 9.60% 5. Realistic Expectations 8.20% 6. Smaller Project Milestones 7.70% 7. Competent Staff 7.20% 8. Ownership 5.30% 9. Clear Vision Objectives 2.90% 10. Hard-Working, Focused Staff 2.40% Other 13.90% The top factors found in Challenged projects were: lack of user input, incomplete requirements and specifications, changing requirements and specifications, lack of executive support, and technical incompetence. The list of top indicators factors found in Failed projects were: incomplete requirements, lack of user involvement, lack of resources, unrealistic expectations, lace of executive support, changing requirements and specifications, lack of planning, didnt need it any longer, lack of IT management, and technical illiteracy. Project Challenged Factors % of Responses 1. Lack of User Input 12.80% 2. Incomplete Requirements Specifications 12.30% 3. Changing Requirements Specifications 11.80% 4. Lack of Executive Support 7.50% 5. Technology Incompetence 7.00% 6. Lack of Resources 6.40% 7. Unrealistic Expectations 5.90% 8. Unclear Objectives 5.30% 9. Unrealistic Time Frames 4.30% 10. New Technology 3.70% Other 23.00% The Standish group report conclude that projects succeed because of: executive support, user involvement, experience project manager, clear business objectives, minimized scope, standard software infrastructure, firm basic requirements, formal methodology, and reliable estimates. The main causes of IT project failure were: lack of clear link between the project and the organizations key strategic priorities, including agreed measures of success; lack of clear senior management and Official ownership and leadership; lack of sufficient data; lack of effective engagement with stakeholders; lack of skills and proven approach to project management and risk management; along with lack of effective project team integration between clients, the supplier team and the supply chain. Causes of failure could also be the result of the problem not being properly defined: they may have developed the right solution to the wrong problem. This is best addressed by trying to understand the reason for do ing the job. The CHAOS Report does have its own shortcomings. Its measures of success are relatively narrow; it only measures success by examining whether a project was completed on time and on budget. The Standish group does not include measures of quality, risk, and customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, the CHAOS Report endures as an important measure for the software despite limited standards of measurement and limiting sources to interviews with executives. There are several other studies on statistics over IT project failure rates which mainly concur with the overall picture of the IT industry that the CHAOS Report provides. In 1997, a study conducted by KPMG Canada, reviewed 176 projects. Their findings determined that over 60% of projects failed to meet their sponsors expectations. A staggering 75% missed their deadline by 30% or more, and over half substantially exceeded their budgets. The main causes for project failure that were identified were: poor project planning, specifically, inadequate risk management and a weak project plan; weak business case; and lack of top management involvement and support. In September 2000, the Gartner Group surveyed 1375 respondents through interviews. (Gardner, 2010) The study indicated that roughly 40 percent of all IT projects fail to meet business requirements. In a more recent survey, the Aberdeen Group claimed 90 percent of projects came in late, while 30 percent were simply cancelled before the deadline. (Booth, R., 2000) According to Tom Carlos in his article Reasons Why Projects Fail gather major reasons   ranging from simple to complex project, The most common reasons for failure   found in the list include :      Poorly managed    Inadequate or vague requirements    Undefined objectives and goals    Lack of management commitment    Poorly defined roles and responsibilities    Stakeholder conflict    Team weaknesses    Lack of user input    Scope creep No change control process Meeting end user expectations    Poor communication    Lack of a solid project plan    Lack of organisational support    Centralised proactive management    initiatives to combat project risk    Enterprise management of budget resources    Provides universal templates and documentation    Unrealistic timeframes and tasks    Competing priorities    Poor communication    Insufficient resources (funding and personnel) Business politics    Overruns of schedule and cost    Estimates for cost and schedule are erroneous    Lack of prioritisation and project portfolio management    Scope creep No change control process Meeting end user expectations    Ignoring project warning signs    Inadequate testing processes    Bad decisions The first 10 failure in the list focus strictly on software requirements where in the requirements are defined user input, stakeholders, communication. Data and Hypotheses When we look at the success or failure of a software project we must also analyze other areas that can have an impact on the project. A review of the Business Analysis Benchmark gives the project owner and the customer a clear understanding of the organizations maturity in requirements definition and with management expectation of the project outcome. (IAG Consulting. Ellis, E., 2009) Findings in this analysis showed that requirements maturity has a strong positive correlation to every major measure of development efficiency assessed. It can be a strong motivator in the success of the project. Based upon time performance, budget performance, function performance, each can be a fundamental point in project success when there is an increase in these areas. The project owner must have a clear vision/goal to prepare for success. Failure can become apparent in many ways, i.e. changing the vision in the middle of the project, disputes on the primary focus, expectations that are beyond proj ect scope, unreliable or not enough resources to maintain project direction and possibly the most valuable to the success of the project is good leadership. An article titled, If Software Quality is so Important, Why is it So Often Neglected? (Sassenburg, H., 2006), a great title for this literature review research. This article further explores the Standish Groups CHAOS Report with a great quote, Software Crisis has not yet reached the turning point. It gives the reader a good statistical percentage, Only 28% of software projects succeed these days, down from 34% a year or two ago. Outright failures [projects cancelled before completion] are up from 15% to 18%. The remaining 51% of software projects are seriously late, over budget and lacking features previously expected. As the study reviews this article a discovery is made based upon the research that includes how the cost is distributed. The designer allows certain percentages for each area of the project phase. In the analyze s egment of the project it is projected that 10% will be utilized. Design phase will encompass about 15% while the realization and testing will average the remaining percentage. Many projects exceed the budgeted percentage and allotted funds will be taken from one phase and move over to the phase in need. This can at times cause the project to slow in progress or be placed in a temporary state or even placed on hold. The end or mid-result can be the determinant of a number of factors that are evaluated to determine how to complete a software project. The CHAOS Report gives unique information regarding how much is spent on IT application development, $250 billion each year on IT application development which equates to approximately 175,000 projects. A large company can spend anywhere from $2,322,000 to develop a project. Medium companies can spend $1,331,000 and a small company can even spend $434,000 to develop a software project. It has also been determined that many of these projec ts regardless the cost will fail. Hence CHAOS, therefore no longer can one speak the three monkeys, hear no failure, see no failure, speak no failure. In the article, Project Management Practices: The Criteria for Success or Failure, (OW, S. H., Harzadeh, I.) list the top four factors that contribute to a projects success are, user involvement, executive management support, clear statement of requirements and proper planning. This article also explores how a project fails; the main reason for failure is listed as, the inabilities of project owners to plan and estimate correctly, or fail to implement the tasks according to plan or simply failure causes by human factor. The Standish Group has estimated that American companies spend at least $81 billion for cancelled software projects. Also, that another $59 million to complete a project that has exceeded budgeted plans. It has been estimated that only 16.2% of software projects were completed on time and on budget. Only 9% of this estimation is for larger companies that have a successful project finished on time and on budget. On occasion these are simply a fraction of the original requirements. Scary? On another scale, Smaller companies do much better. A total of 78.4% of their software projects will get deployed with at least 74.2% of their original features and functions. The study determined that the most projects, 37.1% were impaired and subsequently cancelled in medium companies, compared to 29.5% in large companies and 21.6% in small companies. Many software project failures are due to cost and time overruns which result in the restart of the project. These causes the project to go over budget and exceed time requirements set forth in the original software project plan. With the three major elements for a project in place, (user involvement, executive management support, and a clear statement of requirements), there is a much greater chance that the project will be a success. Without these three elements the chance for failure increases. In the project management scorecard there are several surveys in which to score whether the project is a success or a failure. A survey list reasons most people give, regardless the type of business for failed or poorly managed Projects. This score card also list the cost of a failed project when poorly managed. A n article in the datacenter journal, facing IT Project Failures, explains that the failure of an IT project as others discoveries disclose, can simply mean that the project has gone over budget by a certain percentage, that completion of the project was delayed beyond a certain point or that the business failed to reap a certain return on investment from its project. The CHAOS report indicates that project success rates have increased to 34 percent of all projects. This percent is 100% more from the success rate found in the first study in 1994. A decline in project failure to 15% of all projects is a great improvement over the 31% failure rate reported in 1994. In this current survey a total of 51% of all projects were over the specified time required, over budget or lacking features and requirements.

Free Essays - Asides in Hamlet :: Shakespeare Hamlet Essays

Free Essays - Asides in Hamlet   Asides... what is an asides?   Unlike a soliloquy that is spoken when the speaker is the only actor onstage, an aside is spoken by an actor when there are other actors present on the stage.   The aside is also meant for the audience, but sometimes an aside is spoken to an actor(s) on the stage, but not to all of the actors on the stage.   How   do the asides in   â€Å"Hamlet† by William Shakespeare effect the dynamics of the play?   The asides in â€Å"Hamlet† have several different   dramatic functions; Some of the asides are used to add a bit of irony to the play, others are premonitions of what is going to happen in the play (one is even an ironic premonition), and yet others (most importantly) can be used to look into the character of the actor by what he says of others or   what he says of himself (or too himself), and finally all of the asides have the function of helping to set the plot of the play.   (I use the male gender because I did not encounter an aside from a female).

Monday, August 19, 2019

An Analysis of Shakespeares Sonnet 73 Essays -- Sonnet essays

An Analysis of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73      Ã‚   Sonnet 73 by William Shakespeare is widely read and studied. But what is Shakespeare   trying to say? Though it seems there will not be a simple answer, for a better understanding of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73, this essay offers an explication of the sonnet from The Norton Anthology of English Literature:      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   That time of year thou mayst in me behold   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In me thou seest the twilight of such day   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As after sunset fadeth in the west;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Which by and by black night doth take away,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Death's second self that seals up all in rest.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In me thou seest the growing of such fire,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As the deathbed whereon it must expire,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consumed with that it was nourished by.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To love that well, which thou must leave ere long.  Ã‚   (879)      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This sonnet rhymed abab cdcd efef gg form. Most of his sonnets were written in the 1590s at the height of the vogue, but they were not published until 1609. The first 126 are addressed to a young man; the remainder (with the exception of the last two, which are conventional sonnets on Cupid) are addressed to an unknown "Dark Lady." Whether or not Shakespeare laid bare his heart in his sonnets, as many critics have contended, they are his most personal poems.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For understandi... ...ine 14). "Leave" in line 14 does not mean more than "leave behind."      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 well fills and fits the three quatrains and single couplet of the Elizabethan sonnet. We can be sure there is no doubt to believe that some of Shakespeare's sonnets, like Sonnet 73, were well known and he was surely placed at the head of the dramatists and high among the non-dramatic poets. As Bender and Squier claimed (75), in the sixteenth century, Shakespeare is England's greatest playwright and the best of the Elizabethan sonneteers.    Works Cited Abrams, M. H., et al., The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 1986. Bender, Robert M., and Charles L. Squier, eds. The Sonnet: An Anthology. New York: Washington Square P, 1987. McAuley, James. Versification: A Short Introduction. Michigan: Michigan UP, 1985.  

Sunday, August 18, 2019

In 1794 Temporary Capital :: essays research papers

In 1794 the temporary capital was in an extreme state of political excitement. Federalist Thimas Fitzsimons, was challenged by Republican John Swanwick with vicious charges with the intent to attract voters. Fitzsimons’s supporters called Swanwick an unstable person who was unknown by the political public until he got to know the enemies and made friends with them. John won a syunning victory over Fitzsimons, beating seven of the twelve votes and getting fifty-six percent of the votes. 1789 and 1801 were very crucial years for the young America. Franklin had said that Americans had proved that they were able to destroy governments. The candidates for this election were Thomas Fitzsimon, and John Swanwick.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Fitzsimons was born in Ireland and later migrated to the colonies before the revolution. He first started low by working for a clerk, then later moved up and married into the principal merchant’s family. he was the original founders of the Bank of North America, and the president of the Insurance Company of North America. John was a Roman Catholic. He was a member of the Federalist inner circle in Philadelphia and a firm supporter of Alexander Hamilton.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Swanwick was born in England. Him and his family arrived in the colonies in the early 1770’s. John embraced the Patriot cause. Johnwas hired as a merchant in a firm where is fluency in French and German made him invaluable to the firm. He quickly rose to full partnership in 1783. then in 1794 he bought out his partner share in the company and became full owner. By 1793, he had fallen away from Federalism and had become a Democratic-Republican.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Federalists believed in preserving liberty. It was revealing the rulers who were chosen by the people and the government. Their views on the whisky rebellion were that they vowed not to pay taxes. The democratic-republican wanted war. They were letting the revenue officers arrange themselves immediately under the banner of treasury.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first account of yellow fever appeared toward the latter end of July, in a lodging house in North Water Street. During the month of august the funerals amounted to upwards of three hundred. The disease quickly spread through all sides, and in this month one thousand four hundred were added to this list of mortality. The disease was still progressing and towards the end ninety to one hundred were dyeing daily. The mortality total amounted to four thousand and forty one deaths.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Online Hotel Reservation System

The proponents would like to express their deepest gratitude to the creator, God Almighty for his constant guidance throughout this study. The proponents would like to thank the following persons, groups for their hospitality, patience and understanding.To our parents for allowance support and for letting us workovernight w/ our group. To our group member’s, individual residences for a accommodating using their respective process, thank you.The Professor Jayson R. Herm genes, subject adviser for his kindness, generosity, support and guidance to the researchers throughout the making of this study.Engr. Aureluz L. Torres the University Director, for her support, understanding, encouragement and deep concern for all the students of the Campus Professor Kathryn M. Placido, Head of Academic Affairs, for guidance and support in the making of the study.Professor Gemma B. Macariola, Head for Student Affairs and Services, for the help she had given to the researchers especially for the information that was needed for the study. Our loving parents, for their moral and financial support, for the love and inspiration they have given us to pursue our bachelor’s degree. Our friends, for the support, assistance and the courage they with us within the study.And lastly, to our almighty God who has given us the strength, faith, guidance, knowledge and for making us strong in times of difficulties.DEDICATION The proponents dedicate this study to every person that has been part of this project contributing their resources and knowledge regarding this project. The proponents primarily dedicate this study to their school, Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Maria Campus. The proponents also offer this study to their professors who persistently motivate them, so they can provide such system like this that will hopefully make a big difference in the university.To the family of the proponents who has been very supportive during the process, to their love ones for inspiring them and continuously giving them reasons to have more perseverance in finishing  this project. And above all, the proponents offer this project to God Almighty that always showers them with his blessings.ABSTRACTThe chapter 1 discusses the introduction and system overviewof the study. This section deals with the following statement of theproblem according to the study, objective, scope and delimitation of the study. The chapter 2 deals with the feasibility studies discuss whichincludes technical feasibility and operational feasibility. Economicfeasibility deals with the hardware and software depreciation cost.The cost will implement in the market analysis. System Analysis implements diagrams that discuss the flow of the proposed system. It helps the proponents to take action for the proposed system. System Design implements the process of defining and developing a system to satisfy specified requirements of the user to use the proposed system. The chapter 5 discusses the summary of the whole study. Thissection deals with conclusion and recommendation for the proposedsystem. .CHAPTER 1IntroductionA hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has Largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathroom s and air conditioning or climate control. The cost and quality of hotels are usually indicative of the range and type of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourismworldwide during the last decades of the 20th century, standards, especially those of smaller establishments, have improved considerably.Hotels are independently assessed in traditional systems and these rely heavily on the facilities provided. Today, most of the Hotels provide goods and services using  computer system. It helps to perform task in an easy way with less time consumed. Some companies are become fully automated while others strive for the similar setting. Computer programmers develop things like computer system that the rest of us could use. The computer programmers tell the users what to do. They make programs that users can easily used or understand.The advent of new technology gave rise to easy and hassle free interaction between and among humans. Whether it is in business, science or w hatever task a person takes on the quality and speed of carrying it out are enhanced with automation at the core of this efficient today, many systems have used an automation process like using computer system, due to the efficient and accuracy. â€Å"Hotel Reservation System† is a transaction processing system. In this system there are more advantages rather than a manual Hotel Reservation.Background of the StudyThe proponents want to know the reasons of hotel in using manual reservation. The proponents conduct a study towards the topic because they notice some of the hotel still use manual reservation. The study will emphasize the effects of using manual reservation and how a computerized reservation will be substituted. Therefore, the proponents purported to find out how to increase the number of customer using computerized reservation. Interaction and individual stimulation have always been linked to the technological availability of the time and place. With the transitio n to an information-based society, computers and transactions have evolved from manual transaction.One of the solutions or alternatives to the problems that a hotel is facing, a system was being developed which can edit, delete, filter, monitor and store and secured the records of the customers. Hotel Reservation system is a transaction processing system that solves the problem encountered during the manual Hotel Reservation. The computerized Hotel Reservation System aims to simplify the manual Hotel Reservation fastest and accurate. Database is shared thru LocalArea Network (LAN). The proponents make use of some tools andtechniques to build the project. The system uses Graphical User Interface (GUI) to help the user give instruction to the computer. The system once Implemented it  will solve the most common problems that the Hotel Reservation encounter.Statement of the ProblemBased on the research conducted, the proponents found out the problem of this study is: How will this sys tem help the management and the staff to have anaccurate service at the same time to monitor the records of the customers? General Problem: The main problem of this study is the inaccurate reservation of the customer. Specific problem: 1. Low in security2. Time monitoring 3. Less data integrity 4. Difficulty in searching and retrieving files 5. Possible loss of records and retrieving files 6. Difficulty in finding the availability of roomsObjective of the StudyThis study intends to develop a Hotel Reservation System. General ObjectivesThis study aims to solve the problems encountered and to change the manual reservation.Specific Objectives1. To increase the security between the management and staff. 2. To lessen time consume. 3. To highly integrate data. 4. To spend less time in searching and retrieving of files. 5.To create a back up of files in every successful transaction. 6.To become make easier to find the availability rooms.SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONThis study is conducted to know the reason behind the proponents on how will their purposed systems will help the Hotel Management. Hotel Reservation System is fully scalable and designed toprovide extensive flexibility and varied choices. Typical hotel reservation and e commerce hotel system software reservation solutions currently in place and available today are technically designed to achieve only one objective function, which is to connect buyer to seller.SCOPEThis study mainly focused on providing retailing business application using computeri zed system that enables businesses to track services and aims to provide accurate and reliable process on every transaction especially in a hotel reservation. This study looked into a better impact of using technology today on how it affects our daily lives especially for being the customer. With this studies it can help our beneficiaries’ toknow the differences of using manual system to a computerized generation today, prioritize is to prove and to give them the right information.DELIMITATIONHotel Reservation System is designed to manage all typesof hotel bookings, made directly by guests .Its powerful hotelreservation, marketing & merchandising features give you the abilityto control dynamic room or tour allotments, distribute confidentialtrade rates, provide varying rates and commissions, multiple seasons, distributing last minute rates, multi-currency including the euro and so much more. The hotel reservation system will allow you to dynamicallycontrol most of your hotel reservation without the need for inexpensive web designer.CHAPTER 3SYSTEM ANALYSIS Systems analysis is the interdisciplinary part of science, dealing with analysis of sets of interacting entities, the systems, often prior to their automation as computer systems, and the interactions within those systems.This field is closely related to operations research. It is also â€Å"an explicit formal inquiry carried out to Help someone, referred to as the decision maker, identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might have otherwise made.CONTEXT DIAGRAMThe staff will assist the customer, they input customer information to the form before they check in to the hotel, and the admin will monitor the ongoing transaction.CHAPTER 4Register Fill up FORMR reservation Process BB Hotel Info Stop ACASYSTEM DESIGNIn this chapter the design phase may be defined as the process of applying various techniques and principles for the propose of a defining a device, a process or system in sufficient detail to permit its physical realization.ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAG RAMSEntity Relationship Diagrams show entities in a database and relationships between tables within that database. The patterns help focus on how the database actually works with all of the interactions and data flows, although another useful tool is a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) which more directly describes this.CHAPTER 5SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter implements the summary of the proposed system wherein the proponents have conclusions and recommendation according to their findings.SUMMARYHotel Reservation System has all the dynamic versatile features required to run your hotel, and guest house business. Hotel Room Management offers an operational integration between reservations, guest history, reception/ front desk, Sales Ledger, and Reporting modules. Software has facility to generate report for analyzes your booking, check in and checkout status. Hotel Room Management system is the best suit for managing you resource in very simple but effective manner with minimal efforts or time so that it increases your revenue. This study aims to change the current system that would be accurate for both customer and hotel management. The proponents use diagrams to implement the flow of the proposed system.CONCLUSIONBased on the result of the researcher’s study, the following conclusions are given: 1. the manual process of transaction is inaccurate for the customer because of possible lost of records. 2. More consuming of time in filling forms and reports.RECOMMENDATIONAfter studying and analyzing the flow of the current system of Hotel, the proponents would like to recommend the following: The system prove to be fast accurate convenient, efficient and reliable for the process of reservation. The proponents developed an automated system suitable for the hotel; the system could save time, effort in filling and Dagdag, Lourdes A., etal.Fundamentals of Research and BusinessCorrespondence, Ramar Printing Press, Sta Cruz, Manila: 2001 THESIS Computerized PUPSMB Faculty Performance Evaluation System (2009) Dimanlig, Jacino, San Victores, tiango yasay Agulto, Jasmin C. â€Å"Inventory and Billing

Friday, August 16, 2019

Politics In Cyber Space: The Effects Of Cyber Campaigning Essay

Overview   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the turn of the 21st century, the Internet has placed the world into a massive breakthrough by use of computer-generated communication, as observed by social science experts. In addition, the Internet has also become the central source of information all through out the world.   This has drastically affected the global culture- on people’s attitudes, perspectives, and preferences. In this light, the Internet has drastically affected the political scenario within countries across the world, to the extent that politicians have used the Internet in their political activities. On the other hand, people’s attitudes and preferences towards politically-related matters—preferred candidates, political way of thinking, etc. — have been influenced by cyber media.  Ã‚   However, the accessibility to cyber technology has also negatively affected the political arena across the world. This paper will discuss these effects.   Leading to the conclusion, as this paper will discuss, is the capability of cyberspace to absorb the manipulative and controllable stream of communication as divergent and convergent for the dealings of man towards his role in society. Rationale What is cyberspace? The cyberspace may be defined as virtual domain that consists of virtual life and virtual society. The virtual dimension of cyberspace counterbalances the factual activities, appearance and circumstance of life and society. The only material form that exists in cyberspace is the physical manipulation of computer-generated data reinvented by man. What does cyberspace predispose? The question on what does cyberspace predispose are needs, interests and benefits. To which, cyberspace becomes the interactive convergence for private and public disposition. It may be defined as a labyrinth to the flow of information and communication.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Using the information technology through the telephone, specifically mobile phones and through the Internet, world-wide communication has become convenient. The digital feature in telephone and Internet communication has gone far from the cable networking of the analog telephony.   The satellite signals are transmitted through cyberspace with accuracy, limited by boundaries of time and space. Hence, cyberspace predisposes interaction and reaction of the physical existence of man in a society. What does cyberspace bring to the society? The so-called virtual world exist a virtual society through intelligent manipulation of man. In which, the virtual society manifest the physical appearance of effects from various material response of people to information. The information as absorbed by the physical world will be processed through intellectual configuration, interpretation and comparison to factual and real-time resemblance. The processed information returns to the cyberspace as Internet and digital communication system is utilized for information sharing and communication.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The cobweb of process as absorbed by the physical world is a continuing cycle within cyberspace. For example, the information that tells the winning potential of a political candidate may get the edge as far as popularity is concerned and the added advantage of earning public support. Measuring the Cyber Power The measure that people and society has achieved is by quantifiable utilization of the Internet through information sharing and communication. The effects are the impacts towards the socio-economic-political structure of society. It influences the physical traits, behaviors, likings and inclination of people. For example, Internet communication through the online messaging system brings the user-to-user a distanced discussion and conclusion. In this case, physical knowledge is motivated. Cyber power may involve various components and uses. The need, interest and benefits are among the parameters that bring relevance to achieve such. This means that people and society are the major stakeholders of such parameters according to conditions and circumstances. Evolution on the uses of Internet   Aside from the practical use of Internet in tallying votes to aid retrieval of election results, the use of online voting have been the most recent innovation which governments, specifically the United States, has been using . However, for third world countries, online voting is still in the process. The trend brought about by cyber politics indicates a new trend in elections.   This is most evident in some western countries wherein their elections depend largely upon the Internet. This has brought about a great increase of the younger voting population- or those who use the Internet more frequently against older members of the population who likewise depend on secondary information from the former. Unfortunately, as observed in cyber discussion rooms, participants were focused more on the personal lives of the candidates rather than the political platform. This attitude of voters may be tracked down from the intriguing aspect of electoral proceeding wherein candidates are known based on their social background. Candidates now spend a part of their campaign funds for Internet campaigning. Political campaigning has veered towards Internet and mobile phone utilization. Within Asia, the Philippines is among the third world countries known to have adverse electoral exercises. The voting population is influenced by the Internet; the proximity of effect to the voting population is tremendous as the cyber information is revealed by the broadcast and television media. Meanwhile, in other developing countries, political candidates rely on two-fold campaign strategies by using cyber campaigns and physical organizing and mobilization of supporters. In cyber campaign strategy, using the Internet for posting their profiles and platform of governance is the usual approach. The additional variation to cyber campaign strategy is featured with a questionnaire and FAQ’s (frequently asked questions) for the voters. With regard to the electoral experience in Asia, a study discloses that the interactive campaign might result a non-beneficial situation to a party and candidates   because of the cost in cyber campaigning (Djupsund, G. And Carlson, T., 2001). In other aspects of cyber campaigns relative to other governmental functions, the facilitation of immigration has found the Internet as the most useful procedure. The online application configures the capacity of work and manning of immigrants. It likewise systematizes the institutional facilities and space that may be occupied by massive influx of physical applicants. The enactment of laws is now also influenced by the Internet. Again, dissemination of information is being channeled to the Internet for public opinion and online ratification. Although this process is a minimal venue for third world economies that still rely to the traditional media outfit of television, broadcast and journal. The potential risks in cyber politics Having democratic process is having political system that permits the citizens to partake in the electoral processes and   knowing the pros and cons of candidates as well as its political agenda, personal beliefs and more so the personality. The election period is like a season wherein the citizens enjoy much the freedom to ventilate the issues concerning the candidates. Acquiring the knowledge and information from the candidates and the political party, the Internet is one of the available sources of the electorates. Over the years, the numbers of political Web sites has dramatically increased to reach the young voters that are the regular user of Internet. In the US, George Bush and Dick Cheney have their as their maintained Web site. There are Web sites from both opposition and civil society groups that are created to demonstrate political parody and criticism.   This kind of Web sites however does not represent essential purposes but to delight the online public. Hence, it bears negative effect to the candidate because the information might mislead some facts and therefore decreases popularity. Another Web site was also independently created to implicitly express political opposition—to ridicule the candidate’s political stance and private life. To mention, the is a copy cat of the official Web site of President Bush purposely created for political demolition and scandal. In contrast, other Web sites have been created to support the political campaign of candidates. But nearly majority of the Web sites are inclined to be further deceiving than the Web sites with political parodies since more exaggerated showcase covered the true personality of the candidate. .   In effect, these kinds of Web site pose a potential risk that may lead to public confusion and harm the democratic processes bestowed upon to the electorates. The US Experience in cyber campaigning   The cyber power is an expression broadly engaged to the world mainly by scholars who have been fascinated to the extent of analyzing the capacity of using the Internet in political activities. Computer hardware including all types of software comprises the new form of media, is the main tool used in 21st century political fund raising, recruitment of volunteers and organizing political activities. The 2004 Democratic Party nomination of Howard Dean as Presidential slate has greatly used the Internet and brought about relevance to several American political parties. This event has proven that cyber campaigning is a reality. A medical practitioner by profession, Howard Dean emerged his political career from the 1982 Congressional election and won as a Congressman of Vermont.   After two terms of office as a Congressman, Howard Dean run for Vice-Governor and was elected. Subsequently, the death of the incumbent Governor has installed Dean for the gubernatorial seat and served the term of office from 1991 to 2002. He flourished on his political popularity being tagged as fiscal conservative to proportioning the budgetary appropriations of the state. He was also known as a leading advocate for ecological preservation and advancing the rights of the third sex (Open Secrets, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2003, the Dean supporters utilized the Internet for making up more of Dean’s popularity. The websites and were created for internet circulation of his political platform as well selective articles/political views. The websites has greatly encouraged the voters to participate in the forums; commonly known as Internet blogs, where Dean himself was an active blogger—posting articles and views in the Internet website. The internet blogging has drawn voter’s participation that led to the organizing of â€Å"Dean Defense Forces† (Gibson, R.K., 2004). The has able to organize two million members that donated money for advertisements opposing the Bush administration and massively engaged in telephone and petition campaigns (Wolf, G., 2004). In addition to highlight the cyber campaigning of Howard Dean for the 2004 US Presidential race, the last quarter of 2003 has earned approximately 500,000 followers and raised a fund of about $7.4 million via Internet solicitations alone (Cone, E., 2003).   However, re-electionist George W. Bush won the election being the lone candidate of his party and has $200 million election funds. It may have been said by political scientists that cyber politics, like in the cyber campaigning of Howard Dean, could have gained the voters who are relying much on the Internet. But somehow, the print, television and broadcast media are more crucial instruments to consistently promote the politician. Cyber campaign and approaches The limited campaign funds and machinery of candidates and its political party have efficiently resorted to adopt ways and means of reaching out their potential voters. Likewise, independent candidates are indulging the same approaches. These approaches are a combination of using the available technology and the traditional ones. The perspective of cyber campaigning is enjoined with the traditional approaches to catching the votes, as follows:  §Ã‚  Ã‚   Telephone Messaging o  Ã‚  Ã‚   The 2004 Australian federal election massively used electronic phone messaging that bombarded phone calls to 17,  500 voters with pre-recorded campaign messages authorized by the divisional office of   Canberra Liberals (Onselen P.V., and Errington W., 2004).  §Ã‚  Ã‚   Internet use A post election study in Australia cited that 49.3% of voters rely on the Internet to search for information relevant to political issues, but only 10% reported looking for information on the election updates (Bean, C., Gow, D. and McAllister, I. 2001). o  Ã‚   Campaigning through the Internet shows that it is an electioneering tool that is less needing investment on money and people (Gibson, R., 2004). Internet is an efficient communication channel with lesser cost affordable by independent candidate and minority party that are sometime being isolated by the print and television media groups. And also able to distribute uncensored information to the voters. Electronic mail (e-mail) is also useful to immediately distribute the information to targeted voters and campaign activities to organizers/supporters.  §Ã‚  Ã‚   Advertising Media reports claimed that the major parties spent more than ever on mass-media advertising and direct mail. Direct mailing Direct mailing is still the traditional approach to reach the marginalized voters in which the unavailability, inaccessibility and incapability of Internet knowledge are the main barrier. Some Significant Findings What is more significant is the primary purpose of politicians to utilize the Internet as a trendy political wardrobe—a packaging that may fit in to the taste of the voting populace in the cyber age. In which cyber campaigning through the Internet is added to the political machinery that offers a one-stop-shop convenience for the voters to check on a particular candidate and for the candidate to feature the entire information essential to enhance the popularity. A study conducted, by the â€Å"Bivings Group† (2006), on the 2006 US election has claimed progressive increase of political candidates from 55% in 2002 to 97% in 2006. Mostly, the website owners are political personalities prospecting the Senatorial seat. It can be assessed from the study that although with the progressive increase of the politicians in using the Internet, the availing of the websites are limited only to posting their profiles and fund solicitations. Following are data cited from the study (Bivings Group, 2006): 23% engages in blogging (posting of articles/personal views); 15% uses Spanish language transcription; 5% maintain multi-media; In-between 90% and 93% has complete biographies. Cyber campaigning does not only represent the US but evolved in different parts of the world. Roh Moo-hyun successfully won the 2002 Presidential election in South Korea by disseminating email in the Internet and created a political fan club website called â€Å"Nasomo† that included mobile phone networking (Thompson, N., 2003). In the Philippines, the toppling down of the Estrada Administration in 2001 that installed Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as successor for presidency was much related to cyber campaigning. Political websites were created by various opposition groups and mobile phone campaigns using the Short Messaging System (text messaging) have massively encouraged people’s assembly that brought about an approximately one million Filipinos rallied at EDSA and known as the People Power II (Thompson, N., 2003). Likewise, the 2006 presidential re-election of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo have used the internet and mobile phones network for campaigning. In related finding, it was found that political parties in other European and Asian countries with parliamentary system of government are the common users of Internet websites for campaigning in which the popularity of the candidate is inherent to the political party’s capability to endorse and make the winning potentials of its candidate (Danyi, E., and Galacz, A., 2005). The significance of Internet on the claim as becoming appropriate, necessary and being adopted as a new age technology of the politicians may be interpreted as follows: Accessing the Internet would avoid media scrutiny that may be more intriguing, inexpressive and expensive. The use of Internet in political endorsement of candidates would always gain a win-win position to assert, deal with and assimilate in the democratic point of view of public Internet users through blogging. A wide array of multi-media tools in the Internet websites offers a preferential option for the candidate to use. The chat rooms can be created anytime for a particular topic of discussions wherein the candidate can assess the pulse rate of winning potentials; chance for soliciting public opinion to enhance political platform and strategies. Web designing is much cost-efficient and benefiting than the TV, broadcast and print media. Website maintenance efficiently innovate various promotional coverage, advertisement and designs. The website can be accessed through mobile phones of mostly young voters. The Website is lasting and continuously useful to maintain the politician’s campaign cycle. The Internet is affordable by both minority and majority parties. However, some considerations are being laid down in cyber campaigning on the economic status of the country. Unlike the European Union and the US, the developing countries in Asia, Africa and the Middle East retains the barrier in cyber campaigning. Obviously the main reason behind the barrier is the incapability of the majority of voters to avail individual acquisition of computers, Internet access and the knowledge itself to using computer. In this regard, the mobile phones are the limited source of Internet-generated information as also depending on the mobile phone models. Another consideration is the voter attitude towards an interest to access the Internet websites of politicians. In this case, the traditional approaches of politicians to earning popularity are still complemented with their personal appearances in TV and radio programs as well as print media coverage. It may be positively stated that cyber campaigning then evolves within powerful countries that has capable and responsive voting population. Notably, the Japanese politicians were the first to access cyber campaigning in 1995 and initially adopted by the US at the 1996 campaigning in the Web political advertisements and publicity (Frisk, A., 1999).    Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The cyberspace is a formidable domain where virtual and physical worlds meet. The  Ã‚   realities happen between time and space, as continuing exploits to science and technology converge. This conclusion addresses the manifestation of decadent culture to the overflowing commercialization of technology as the third world societies are vulnerable to the interest of the few. The clamor of the third world countries to the fervor of globalization has turned the tides of cyber power and uncontrolled political agenda as the economy is plundered from behind of the cyber politics.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The politics in cyberspace is the new age technology known to the interaction of man in his society, as politicians invest his wealth. Known to many that cyber campaigning is an expensive framework to win a candidacy; the effect is much crucial when politician amassed the vote as well as recuperate the election expense from the coffer of national economy. The manipulation in cyber campaigning that is carried out in the political race is perceived as enduring at the term of office.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In other perspectives of politics in cyberspace, the cyber campaigning in aspects of fostering goodwill, economic cooperation, cultural exchange and political-diplomatic relationship among nations for human security are essential attributes. Assessing the pessimistic and constructive conclusion, politics in cyberspace retains a multi-faceted democratic power of people, in which the human intellect represents. The global proliferation of the Internet must be complemented with and requires critical understanding. The critical understanding in the use of Internet, most especially in the third world economies, must surface at the required and immediate need of people. This understanding must be focused at improving the economic resources of a country and the values of people. Likewise, the global proliferation of the Internet may be used as an instrument for constant disparity based on the social, economic and political condition of people and country. Although the fundamental concern is to enhance the delivery of basic services to the indigent, a conflicting outcome may possibly transpire the gap of selectiveness, cultural homogeneity of culture, and fracture of societal unity and customary understanding. Thus, this might be a basic social issue that be given significance in the social perspective. A synergy of initiatives between governmental and non-governmental organizations should be created as a means of expanding the social awareness of the public users that may promote sustainable development education approaches for better understanding, consciousness and responsibility in the use of Internet. In effect, a more responsive and participative people shall impart in the empowerment of governance and socio-economic-political stability. 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