Monday, September 30, 2019
A1. Compliance Status The ongoing survey readiness audits that are conducted in the hospital on a daily basis have identified areas we will focus on to ensure that our accreditation survey results are exceptional. Audits are performed on an ongoing basis with a focus on trends that are most commonly cited by the Joint Commission. Nightingale hospital has proven to have made great improvements over prior survey findings in Emergency Management, Human Resources, Leadership, Medical Staff, Nursing Care, Provision of Care, Treatment and Services, Information Management, Handoff Communication and critical value reporting. We have placed an abundance of resources and efforts into improvement in these categories and will continue to make strides to further improve every aspect of the care we provide to our patients. (The Joint Commission, 2013) A2. Noncompliant Trends The areas we have identified that are not in compliance with the Joint Commission standards are: 1) Environment of care findings with numerous smoke wall penetrations, interim life safely measures for construction projects, blocked fire extinguishers, lack of sufficient evidence of adequate fire drills, lack of testing for medical gas alarm panels, blocked sprinkler clearance as well as cluttered hallways. 2) Falls has continue to be a challenge for our organization and will continue to be a focus for every department in our hospital. 3) Moderate sedation is an area that has been identified that needs a hardwired process for not only the hospital but for the anesthesia providers. The Joint Commission standards for moderate sedation compliance will require teamwork from the hospital and anesthesia group. 4) Pain assessment and reassessment is an ongoing primary focus area that we have not mastered in our organization. We have developed performance improvement processes to work toward compliance. This standard is a focus for every inpatient and outpatient department of our hospital. 5) Authentication of verbal orders continues to be monitored, but remains a challenge for our hospital. 6) Prohibited abbreviations are used periodically throughout our organization and is a piece of our daily audits when performing open record reviews. 7) Medication Management is aÃ priority focus area for our hospital, which we continue to struggle with various elements of this standard. We are focusing in particular on range order compliance and labeling medications. A3a. Staffing Patterns The case study shows that on unit 4E has the most opportunity for improvement in the number of patient falls and hospital acquired pressure ulcers. The comparison of falls and nursing care hours appears to be inconclusive, however appears to be a trend developing. The data appears that the staffing nursing hours per patient day have increase during the fourth quarter. In October, the falls per 1000 patient days was around 9. During October, the nursing hours per patient day were approximately five. November shows an increase in falls per patient day to 11.5 with nursing hours per patient day of 15.5. December continues the trended increase to 15 falls per 1000 patient days and 15 nursing hours per patient day. The data shows that the more hours per patient day we have, the more falls per 1000 patient days we experience. The data for pressure ulcer prevention follows the same trends. A3b. Staffing Plan The study has shown that the number of staff available is not causing the increase in the patient falls. The staff are obviously not rounding effectively on their patients, and being proactive in fall prevention. The plan to decrease nosocomial pressure ulcers and prevent falls will be presented to all staff on 4E by 4/15/2014 and fully implemented immediately. The new action plan will be evaluated for the remaining second quarter and if successful, will be implemented throughout the organization. The plan will utilize 10 hours per patient day, which is the average of the last quarter. The plan will require the staff to be more efficient and round with purpose in order to stay focused on the needs of the patients. This increased focus should prove to decrease the number of falls per 1000 days. Action Plan: 1) Mandatory education by 4/15/2014 to all staff on 4E 2) All patients will be rounded on hourly beginning 4/16/2014 3) All hourly rounds will address the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s (Pain, potty, possessions and position) a. Pain i. Is patient experiencing pain at this time ii. If so, ask patient to rate their pain iii. Depending on pain level, offer medication or other intervention b. Potty i. Does the patient need to use the restroom, urinal or ambulate to bathroom and if so, assist them to prevent falls and stay with them until completed c. Possessions i. Is call light, phone, meals, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ within reach of patient? The patient having their possessions within reach will minimize their need to reach or ambulate without assistance to answer the phone, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ which will prevent falls d. Position i. Is it time to change the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s position (left to right, ambulate, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦) the changing of position frequently will assist in the prevention of pressure ulcers. 4) Each staff member ta performs the hourly round will document each round on the rounding log that will be located in the patient room. Rounds can be done by either the nurse or nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s assistant, as long as all needs for medication or other special needs will be immediately addressed by the nurse. The action plan presented will ensure that the patients are seen and their needs are met on an hourly basis. The staff will anticipate the needs of all patients by addressing the areas that cause the majority of falls. The patients will know the staff will be returning within an hour and will no longer have a need to utilize their call light unless in an emergency. The call lights will decrease, which will create a more organized unit that is very focused on being proactive with all patients. The results will be evaluated and changes and update to the plan will be made where necessary to continue improving the fall and pressure ulcer rate on this unit. B. Sources NONE
Sunday, September 29, 2019
When she was young, Martha committed her attempts to school assignments, obtaining report books full of best marks. She gained a scholarship to Barnard College, where she employed as a model and wedded with a law scholar, and changing her name becomes Martha Stewart. She discontinue her career as model when she was pregnant. Then she worked as a broker for few years. She was pretty good in doing the job, so she would have recognized about insider trading laws (Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart, broker indictedÃ¢â¬ , 2003).When she was a college student, Stewart involved in business with her friend. Stewart began a catering business. Her catering business became productive and successful. Stewart started a retail store and sold her home equipments. She co-wrote a best-seller book, entertaining peoples, with long-period fashion ace Elizabeth Hawes. She began cropping up on Television talk shows with confidential information for troubled housewives. She was also having crucial problem with her hu sband. After Stewarts divorced, her husband married the worker. In the meantime, Martha Stewart's business remained successful (Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart, broker indictedÃ¢â¬ , 2003).Stewart launched her magazine, Martha Stewart Living, in 1991. It became an achievement. Two years later, she began her own TV show, Martha Stewart Living. Initially, the insiders were unsure it would run well, but surely it was become tremendously rewarding TV show. Stewart generated a lot of money increasingly at that period (Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart, broker indictedÃ¢â¬ , 2003).Insider Trading in case of Martha StewartThe Securities and Exchange Commission, in 2002, informed that Martha Stewart was investigated for insider trading case. In December 2001, she had sold 3,928 shares of ImClone Systems merely ahead the Food ; Drug Administration informed that it was entrancing ImClone's utilization to sell a modern supposed wonder medicine. It seemed like standard insider trading, and it believably was (Ã¢â ¬Å"Stephen Moore on Martha Stewart & Insider TradingÃ¢â¬ , 2004).However, inquisitively the federal officials never testified this in courtyard, or even attempted to establish it. Alternatively, they appointed Stewart with four law-breaking, such as confederacy, construction of natural virtue, and two numbers of creating incorrect statements to officials. A jury said that she is blameworthy, and she was decided to be prisoned for five months. They thought that it is a law-breaking to telling the falsity to a fed. The speech communication does not have to be recorded, and witnesses are elective (Ã¢â¬Å"Stephen Moore on Martha Stewart & Insider TradingÃ¢â¬ , 2004).Martha Stewart has been in the news program and media for some months because the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission considers that she was confirmed by Sam Waksal that his company ImCloneÃ¢â¬â¢s cancer medicine had been declined by the Food and Drug Administration earlier than this report was published (Schroede r, J., 2004).This state of affairs was a great stroke to his company and the monetary value of its stock descended spectacularly. Nevertheless, Martha Stewart was not monetary injured because she had her stock broker sell her 4000 shares earlier than this information was published. If it is accurate, and it should be lined it has not been evidenced yet, and so she is chargeable of insider trading. The Stewart beliefs should make a resentful after-sensation in conservatives' openings for other causes. Stewart was a unfortunate person of socio-economic class conflict that has filtered down from the unintelligent (Schroeder, J., 2004).One of the panelists remarked joyously that this final judgment was warrantied, because it would bring a subject matter to the Ã¢â¬Å"valuable and strongÃ¢â¬ , which they cannot escape with such maltreatments. The print media also pleasured in performing the Ã¢â¬Å"socio-economic class conflictÃ correspondenceÃ¢â¬ by spiting Martha Stewart for suc h wrongdoings as dressing high-priced jewelry at the time of the legal proceeding (Ã¢â¬Å"Stephen Moore on Martha Stewart ; Insider TradingÃ¢â¬ , 2004).Stewart now confronts possibly two years in correctional institution and the termination of as a minimum one-half of her financial condition, all because she handled to preserve herself $50,000 selling ImClone stock at the time of she perceived that one of the medicines the companies had been expanding had unsuccessful to acquire FDA acceptance (Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart Stock ScandalÃ¢â¬ , 2003).In conclusion, Martha Stewart has been one of the great and victorious entrepreneurs of this contemporaries era. She produced hundreds of millions of dollars of innovative economic condition and nearly an innovative business enterprise that was effectively by herself. She made many occupations and was a booming enterpriser who materialized to produce much money.The origin my edginess is that a number peoples in our social group praise her ru ination incisively because of her tremendous attainment. However, attainment is a moral excellence in United States, and while the people begin handling it as frailty, they minimize their competitive arrangement. And so they have an untold greater difficulty in their social group than whether people are exchanging on active stock confidential information among the period of time.BibliographyMartha Stewart, broker indicted. 2003. [Online]Available at: http://money.cnn.com/2003/06/04/news/martha_indict?cnn=yesMartha Stewart settles SEC's insider trading case. 2004. [Online]Available at: http://redorbit.com/news/general/605372/Ã¢â¬ ¦/index.htmlSchroeder, J. 2004. SSRN-Envy, Jealousy and Insider Trading: The Case of Martha Stewart. [Online]Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=419580SEC Charges Martha Stewart, Broker Peter Bacanovic with Illegal Inside. 2003. [Online]Available at: http://www.sec.gov/news/press/2003-69.htmStephen Moore on Martha Stewart & Insi der Trading. 2004. [Online]Available at: http://www.nationalreview.com/moore/moore200403090901.asp
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Should our food habits and eating preferences be guided by sense of morality - Term Paper Example Maybe, what is intended is not that you are free to do whatever you want to the animals, morality states that we cannot treat animals with barbarity, brutality, savagery and truculence, butÃ¢â¬ since humans are made with more rationale than the rest of the animals on earth, it will be up to them to see that the animals are well cared for Ã¢â¬â humans shall not harm or kill them unless it is absolutely necessary." (Weil). It's not that I suppose ethics isn't an element in consuming creatures however, the cruel actuality of life is that with a explicit end goal to feed one form, some life, a living thing whether an animal, fish, bird or plant, must be given the ax. Every species has its own sort of sustenance that their physique needs in order to survive. Some individuals have the capacity to be solid on a veggie lover eating regimen, however numerous individuals go for vegetarian diets and sometimes their health deteriorates to dangerous levels. However, some individuals, regard less of the fact that their health suffers as a result of their veggie lover eating regimen, won't consume meat items in light of moral explanations. Endeavoring to go against what your physique needs in an exertion to be an "exceptional individual" is not ethics or morality, its silliness. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s corrupt to damage yourself! Also, in the event that you don't think about yourself, and might rather spare a creature's existence than your own, that is one thing, however in the event that you have children or a companion, it would not seem to be a sensible, healthy and moral choice to give priority to an animalÃ¢â¬â¢s life over your own. You might be going overboard with your morality obligations because you have certain responsibilities regarding family and professional life. At the same time provided that you still consume meat from processing plants you have not, by definition, assimilated the actuality of atrocities committed by these plants. In the event that you legitimately comprehended the nightmarish fierceness of what happens inside these austere animal correctional facilities and butcheries, you essentially would not consume this meat (Walsh). Consider the fact that numerous individuals all over the world consume next to no meat and are among the planet's longest-living individuals, healthier by all intents and measure. Corporations that possess these horrific industrial facilities take agonies to keep their operations mystery, covered up behind showcasing symbolism (Weil). The even bigger concern is that, efforts to expose this gruesome and nightmarish abomination in exact, intentionally sourced profundity are not yet noticeably successful. Sacrificing your morality on the altar isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only way of consuming meat, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a middle sensible path as well. It is quite clear that we see value in responsible farming on a diminutive scale. The logic behind this practice is that there is a considerable time period for an animal to become suitable for slaughtering. Assuming that individuals needed to raise all the creatures they consumed notwithstanding growing everything else they consumed, it is highly unlikely that they have the capacity to devour meat at the same rate most individuals do today, they'd
Friday, September 27, 2019
Government 2 - Dissertation Example It is possible for a minority idea to prevent a majority idea from being enacted. In this case, the minority party must be able to show a great opposition to the majority party, which does not usually occur. The basic ideas of representation have not changed, however the way in which the people of the branches conduct themselves has because there is far more lobbying and dealing with interest parties than there were in 1789. In addition, it seems that the leaders of both the house and the senate seem to have more power and influence than in previous years. 2. Discuss the process of how a Bill becomes a law in Texas. In order for a bill to become a law according to the Texas Constitution, it must pass through a vote in both the House and the Senate, much like in the federal government. Once a bill is written up, it is first taken to the House to be voted on. Depending on what the bill is related to, it is assigned to a committee in the House where a hearing is held. The committee then votes and the bill needs a majority vote to pass. Then, it is brought to the floor of the House for debate, amendments and voting. The senate follows the same process, which means sometimes there are two different copies of the bill. In this case, representatives from both chambers meet to discuss and compromise. That compromised bill is returned to both houses for voting without any amendments.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Southeast Asia in the US - Essay Example For Ricky, the sea journey was difficult as explained by Hai, one gang member who gave their account while on a sea travel with pirates said that he was only ten years old and his mother was beaten up and thrown into the vast seawaters an experience he will never forget. Most of the Vietnamese had other painful stories to tell about their experience during the war. For instance, they state that on their way to U.S.A, pirates attacked them.. For a period of two years, the South East of Asia became the home for many Ã¢â¬Ëboat peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ refugees before they were taken to United States. In the camps, there were many crimes and they engaged in survival tactics.In our close association with Ricky, we felt that there were unfamiliar faces either from the gang or from the others who lived in the house at one time. He also informed us that many of their recruits were coming down from Minneapolis. He did not explain the condition they were in at that time. Johnny, a friend of his was a victim who was on the run. His foster father had beaten him and he adapted slowly to the conditions. He seemed to very cautious and afraid of the group members. His friends were cool with him and allowed him to adapt slowly. Though their experience varies, they had similar themes. Most of the members gave their experience as school dropouts, they had language barrier between them, and they could not assimilate it successfully. After two years, they were two years adrift and their parents were forced to adjust their birth dates. In similar life experience, Tam a victim focuses on the family unity that existed in Vietnam that was dismantled by the war. The split families found it difficult to adjust with the transitional life in United States. This has caused a change in the gender roles of most
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Falsfication of medical records - Assignment Example Falsifying patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical records is a case of negligence and it can result in the deterioration of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health and in some cases the death of the patients. Lundstrom further explains that there are cases where costly medical law suits drive hospital administrators to recreate medical records. This serves as a desperate measure to cover up their neglectful care (Lundstrom, 2013). Lundstrom looks at the various patterns in falsification of medical records. Dressenhaul and Peabody (2002) explain that recording false positives leads to overestimation of the quality care in critical areas such as physical examination. According to Lundstrom, medical practitioners falsify medical records to cover up neglect or unprofessional acts that result in the death of a patient. In such cases, the nursing home administrators rewrite the records to minimize liability. There are other cases where staff members fill in blank patient charts without confirming whether treatment ha s taken place and there has been accuracy of the information. The pharmacy department also experiences cases of medical record falsification when medications are cleared off from the pharmacy, but later discrepancies in the pharmacy records are reported or boxes of medication are found unopened. There are other cases where nurses falsify consent forms to enable them to sedate patients. In some cases, nursing home staff alter dates in medical records to cover up acts of negligence during an audit (Lundstrom, 2013). Pozgar (2009) points out that falsifying of medical records is a professional misconduct. Patients expect from health practitioners to keep accurate and adequate records that show their medical history. Accurate and adequate medical records facilitate effective communication of health requirements between practitioners and patients. Inaccurate documentation jeopardizes a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Falsified documents shatter a practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility (Pozgar, 2009) . According to Pozgar, a health practitioner has a duty towards the patient to maintain the accuracy, truth, integrity and reliability of the medical records. Pozgar explains that inaccurate, misleading or false information in a medical record prejudices the patients care. When a practitioner falsifies a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical information for his own interests, it is regarded as a gross medical malpractice for this endangers the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ health. Daniels (2004) explains that falsifying of medical records constitutes unprofessional conduct. Falsifying medical records is a breach of duty. Such negligence by medical practitioners goes against professional ethics. Medical record falsification can cost a health practitioner their license to practice (Daniels, 2004). Falsification of medical documents goes against certain principles in nursing practice. Whitehead, Weiss, and Tappen describe the principle of nonmaleficence, which requires that a nurse should not do any harm either deliberately or unintentionally to a patient. The principle requires that nurses protect patients, especially those who are unable to protect themselves, like mentally challenged patients or physically challenges patients. Falsifying medical documents endangers a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health (Whitehead, Weiss and Tappen, 2007). Medical records falsification breaches the principle of fidelity that requires nurses to fulfil their responsibilities as nursing practices state. Nurses
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Organizational Change High School - Essay Example Kurt Lewin's theory of the change analysis is a widely accepted and analyzed model. Lewin was a social scientist and a change agent and his theories were better recognized due to their practicality of applying to change occurring in organizations. Before organizational change was taken seriously and processes put in place to manage it, change was accepted as something that just occurred and people just battled it out. It was not embraced with enthusiasm and considered as a part of the growth of an organization. Lewin Introduced a three-stage model of change: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. Lewin's Forcefield Analysis defines an organizational environment in need of change as a state of imbalance between driving forces (legislation, economic imperatives, and competitive pressures) and restraining forces (traditional practices, organizational culture, job insecurity). To achieve change, three steps are required: (1) the driving and restraining forces that hold the organization in a state of equilibrium must be unfrozen; (2) an imbalance must be introduced that enables change to take place, preferably achieved by reducing the restraints; and (3) the new elements must be refrozen. Unfreezing is the phase during which an organization is prepared for a change. This phase also will include disconfirmation of expectations, creation of guilt or anxiety and the provision of psychological safety that converts anxiety into motivation to change. Changing is the phase where a planned change actually takes place and moving into a new position is often through identifying a new model or mentor, scanning the environment for new relevant information. Refreezing is the phase at which change is stabilized and the organization is consolidated for the new mode of operation. This model still implies that change is sporadic. Mostly the situation is stable. Every now and then there arises a need for planned change. One does not wait until change is forced upon the organization. One needs to anticipate, strategically plan and implement and be ready to face the change when it does occur. One of the most important consequences is that change is a collective responsibility of the organization. Participation by all the parties involved, which includes, the employees, clients and management, are necessary to achieve successful organization change implementation. The three most commonly recommended strategies are self-explanatory: top down; bottom up; and a combination of these. Restraining forces Changes can be due to a variety of factors. Depending on the internal and external factors, change can be made in the area of tasks, people, culture, technology and structure. Increasing competition, Mergers and Acquisitions, changing legislations and advancing technology can precipitate change. Changing technology is often the harbinger of change. Typically, change of any kind
Monday, September 23, 2019
Managerial Decision Making Bachelor - Essay Example The focus will be on the need for heart failure specialist nurses in the community and how they can improve health care in the UK. The 80-year-old female patient I have chosen to discuss here appears to fit the overall criteria for the above study, which was mainly focused on previously hospitalized patients with interventions through specialist heart failure services in the community. My client was diagnosed with heart failure two years ago and had one additional admission to hospital about one year ago for exacerbation of her heart failure. She felt she had not been given adequate information on her condition. She was referred to community heart failure nurses for education, management and titration of Carvedilol 6.25mg bd. Other heart failure medication prescribed included furosemide 80mg mane, spironolactone 25mg mane and ramipril 5mg bd. The spironolactone was stopped due to increased potassium, urea and creatnine, a decision based on the RALES study (2003). After another admission for chest infection, she was discharged without furosemide, and I was assigned as a community heart failure nurse. She was con cerned about having her furosemide discontinued, and it was recommenced after I contacted the physician. The client feels more secure knowing she has someone to contact rather than "bothering" her doctor, and we have developed a good rapport. I am working with her on pharmacology issues, making sure she is responding well to her medications as well as taking the right medications. Heart Failure - Major Health Problem Heart failure has continued to be an escalating public health problem. Chronic heart failure is the "syndrome of breathlessness, fatigue and fluid retention resulting in impaired ability of the heart to pump properly" (Sanderson, 1994, par. 1), often following a heart attack. By the end of the 1990s, 5% of all medical admissions to hospital in UK were related to chronic, or congestive, heart failure (Bosson, 1997). The Department of Health considers it a major concern because there is no cure at present. It therefore has a dramatic effect on the quality of life, and if not properly managed in the community it can also place very heavy pressures on hospital beds through emergency admissions and re-admissions (DOH, 2003). Local GPs in a 2005 clinical audit who had access to a specialist CHF nurse considered the service far more important than did the GPs without a specialist nurse. Even with the existence of guidelines, the treatment for heart failure in UK continues to be suboptimal, a concern which makes the specialist CHF nurse increasingly valuable (Leslie, 2005). The 80-year-old female client whose care I am monitoring no doubt will find herself increasingly dependent on others, and if she doesn't have proper treatment her quality of life will be greatly diminished. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether this type of care in the community not only will lessen the need for hospital inpatient care but ultimately will
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Modelo - Essay Example ModeloÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion strategy was made possible through its strategic alliance with its two main distributors; Bartisor and grambrinus, experienced, creative and knowledgeable subsidiaries with knowledge about local customers in the US market. This strategy ensured that the risk of increase in taxes is hedged. These distributors were delegated with all the value chain processes of the activities except production which was being carried out the parent firm, Group Modelo back in Mexico. They had autonomous control on decisions regarding the marketing, insurance, transportation and creatively marketing captains, from which a campaign that leapfrogged the Grupo ModeloÃ¢â¬â¢s sales emanated from in 1986. As pointed out in the report, wine is more competitive in Italy and Ireland unlike beer. Therefore, it will have an opportunity to attempt to enter these foreign markets by both mergers and acquisition from the local importers and distributors. They ca also adopt other strategic alliances with highly expertise- mature companies in this countries. It can be pointed out that, for the company to stand tall, it needs, a sharper differentiation, identifying and focusing on the key marketing that region and developing a creative Marketing development as a strategy
Saturday, September 21, 2019
David and Solomon Essay In 1 Kings 9:12-13, Hiram, the king of Tyre, is described as not pleased with the kind of towns that King Solomon has given him. Perhaps expecting for something that would have equaled all the pine, cedar and gold that he gave Solomon, Hiram questioned the King about the towns that he received. On the other hand, 2 Chronicles 8:2 merely mentions that Solomon reconstructed the villages that Hiram had given, after which he settled the Israelites in these villages. Following the passages in 1 Kings 9:10-28, Hiram named the twenty towns in Galilee he received from Solomon as the Land of Cabul. The word Ã¢â¬Å"CabulÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Ëwhat does not pleaseÃ¢â¬â¢ in Phoenician. The fact that the Hiram named the land Solomon has given him Ã¢â¬Å"CabulÃ¢â¬ suggests that, indeed, Hiram was not pleased at all with the gestures of the King. Perhaps the reason to HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s displeased reaction is that he gave all the pine, cedar and gold that Solomon wanted only to get twenty lands which did not suit his taste. It might have been the case that Hiram had high expectations in return of his gestures to Solomon. On the other hand, 2 Chronicles 8:2 suggests that Hiram gave the towns to Solomon instead of Solomon supposedly giving Hiram the twenty towns in Galilee in 1 Kings 9:11. In 2 Chronicles 8:2, it is mentioned that Solomon Ã¢â¬Å"rebuiltÃ¢â¬ the cities he received, implying that the cities were not in good condition. In the same passage, we are also told that Solomon eventually placed the Israelites to live in those rebuilt cities. The passage appears to point us the idea that Solomon was a king who was out to develop the undeveloped and to expand his dominion through the resources he garnered from his conquests. Moreover, SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s men together with HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s sailors returned home from Ophir delivering four hundred and fifty talents of gold to Solomon in 2 Chronicles 8:17-18. On the contrary, 1 Kings 9:28 narrates the same fleet of men sailing to Ophir but only delivering four hundred and twenty talents of gold to Solomon. The discrepancy in the amount of gold delivered suggests at least two ideas: one is that Solomon was either exceedingly triumphant or not in his exploits and two is that he was either a well-respected ruler or not by his subjects. In essence, the accounts provided in 2 Chronicles 8:1-18 suggest that Solomon was a king who was exceedingly triumphant so much so that Hiram was compelled to give him cities which Solomon then rebuilt. On the other hand, the accounts provided in 1 Kings 9:10-28 suggest that Solomon was a ruler who, in general, did not give the appropriate dues to people who expected much from him insomuch as he was a ruler who the royal subjects can easily steal from due in part to a lack of honesty and respect. I think the two accounts differ with respect to the descriptions of the character and the actions of Solomon because of differing perceptions towards Solomon. I think the inclusion of the displeased reaction of Hiram in 1 Kings 9:12-13 may suggest that some people saw Solomon at the time of his rule as someone who could only care less about how other people may see him and react against his actions. On the contrary, the omission of HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction in 2 Chronicles 8:2 may suggest that how people viewed Solomon with regard to his actions was irrelevant since he may have been seen as a righteous ruler who provided for his subjects their necessities. In general, the description of SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s reign in 1 Kings is not only Ã¢â¬Å"based on a variety of sources with a different provenanceÃ¢â¬ but also Ã¢â¬Å"displays traces of different stages of redactionÃ¢â¬ (Talshir, p. 233) or the combination of multiple source texts, thereby suggesting that the differences in the accounts can be largely attributed to their respective writers. In both 2 Samuel 8:1-18 and 1 Chronicles 18:1-17, the triumphs of David in all of his wars are narrated. In all of the wars revealed in the two accounts, David is portrayed as an able leader who is very much capable of invading territories and still not forgetting to make offerings to God such as the gold and silver exploits. Both accounts agree that the Lord helped David wherever he went, indicating that the Lord was pleased with the efforts of David. However, one major difference between the two accounts is that, in 2 Samuel 8:2, David is described as having been able to defeat the Moab forces which was followed by the execution the few remaining Moabites. In the selection process, the Moabites were made to lie on the ground in a line and those who were within two lines were put to death while those in the third length were given the chance to live under the rule of David. Apparently, nothing about the process of the execution was mention throughout 1 Chronicles 18:1-17. The inclusion of the description of the execution of the Moabites in 2 Samuel 8:2 gives a rough image of how David was supposedly ruthless towards his conquered subjects. The passage gives us the impression that, although David was kind enough to Ã¢â¬Å"randomlyÃ¢â¬ allow some of the Moabites to live, he was nonetheless a leader and a warrior who showed little mercy towards those who have survived the onslaught of his armies. The seemingly detailed account of the execution of the Moabites creates an eerie mental environment, appearing as a visual reminder that David was a conqueror who displayed his authority and power with little mercy. And yet, David is still portrayed in the same passage as an abiding servant of the Lord who never forgets to provide his offerings to God. It signifies that, since the Lord helped David wherever he went, nothing can stand against the way and the disposition of David. In essence, it appears that the position of the writer in 2 Samuel 8:1-18 is that David was a devout servant of the Lord while being a ruthless conqueror who can easily take the lives of his conquered subjects according to his will. On the other hand, the writer of 1 Chronicles 18:1-17 seems to suggest that David was blessed by the Lord and that he was a leader who piously served and gave offerings to the Lord without the hint of ruthlessness revealed in 2 Samuel 8:2. The two accounts differ primarily because David, I think, was a ruler hated in his time by those who became victims of his military actions. It is therefore not surprising that at least one account pertaining to DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s military advances gave several details about how people were executed depending on the decision of David. However, those who saw David as a righteous ruler and those who benefitted from his triumphs are more inclined to put David on a more positive regard. Roddy L. Braun suggests that the ChroniclerÃ¢â¬âthe writer of the book of ChroniclesÃ¢â¬âpresents DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s kingship as Ã¢â¬Å"greeted by the mixed multitudes of Israel with immediate and enthusiastic unanimityÃ¢â¬ (Braun, p. 503) unlike the respective writers of Samuel and Kings. Such variations in writings can hardly be reconciled almost entirely and that the only way to avoid the vicious circle that can commence from the failure to reconcile the accounts, as Sara Japhet suggests, is Ã¢â¬Å"by studying the matter from its positive aspectsÃ¢â¬ânot from what is omitted, but from what is existentÃ¢â¬ (Japhet, p. 206). Thus, it is not necessarily the case that the differences in the accounts mean that one account is true and the other is not. While Solomon may be portrayed in Kings quite differently from Chronicles or while David may be portrayed in Samuel differently from Chronicles, the differences may not essentially signify the truthfulness or falsehood of either one of the accounts. Rather, the presence of additional details in the each account provides more insight into the lives of Kings David and Solomon. Works Cited Braun, Roddy L. Ã¢â¬Å"Solomonic Apologetic in Chronicles. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Biblical Literature 92. 4 (1973): 503-16. Japhet, Sara. Ã¢â¬Å"Conquest and Settlement in Chronicles. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Biblical Literature 98. 2 (1979): 205-18. Talshir, Zipora. Ã¢â¬Å"The Reign of Solomon in the Making. Ã¢â¬ Vetus Testamentum 50. 2 (2000): 233-49
Friday, September 20, 2019
Validity of Electronic Contracts in the UK REGULATIONS AND CASE ANALYSIS ON THE VALIDITY OF ELECTRONIC CONTRACTS IN UNITED KINGDOM The validity of Electronic Contracts in United Kingdom Legal background of UK legislations on Electronic contracts In the late 1990s, the lack of a legal foundation for e-commerce has caused many European countries to separately enact electronic signature law.Such a trend has raised a concern to the EU as a whole for the differences there might be.In addressing the issue, the EU has come up with the Directive on a Community Framework for Electronic Signatures (EU E-Signatures Directive).The Directive requires implementation by all member states by July 19, 2001.The Directive mainly deals with, inter alia, the recognition of electronic signature, technological neutrality, and international harmonization. As a result, the Electronic Communications Act 2000 (ECA) and the Electronic Signatures Regulations 2002 (ESR) are the implementation of the EU Directive. 2. Electronic Communications Act 2000 During the history of English contract law, it has addressed and reconciled the validity issue of signature on the basis of their forms. Several forms of signatures were given legal validity such as initials, marks, seals or printed name. When it comes to electronic signatures, UK maintained their perspective as to relying on the function performed by the signature method in determining its legality; this approach is called the technology neutral approach. The ECA heavily inherits of this technology neutral approach. The ECA focuses on three main issues: (i) the validity of electronic signatures, (ii) the validity of electronic records in transactions, and (iii) the legality of public key cryptography. Section 8 and 9 of the ECA removes the barrier between electronic documents and their paper counterparts. As such, electronic records are given legal validity on a case-by-case basis. The act also authorizes the Secretary of State to enact secondary legislations. 3. Electronic Signatures Regulations 2002 The ESR came into force on March 8, 2002.The main focus of the ESR is to implement certain provision of the EU E-Signatures Directive, especially the one concerning Cryptography Service Providers, including liability and data protection. The ESR and the EU E-Signatures Directive share the same definition for electronic signature. Under the ESR, a legal person can be a signatory. The two legislations also share the same two types of signature, which is basic and advanced signature. Since UK contract law does not distinguish the notion of handwritten signature, theres no need for the ESR to specifically recognize the validity of an electronic signature as an alternative for the handwritten ones. However, various [U.K.] legislative acts have generally recognized [sic] that an e-signature is a valid form of signature in the specific context concerned. Data messages under UK legislations Definition of data messages under UK legislations Under English legislation, data messages was addressed under the name of electronic communication. Section 15 of the Electronic Communication Act 2000 defines electronic communication as follows: A communication transmitted (whether from one person to another, from one device to another or from a person to a device or vice versa)- By means of a telecommunication system (within the meaning of the Telecommunication Act 1984); or By other means but while in an electronic form This broad definition covers all kinds of communication transmitted through a device to a telecommunication network, including a telephone, fax, computer or laptop. Regarding electronic contracting, the EDI might be the oldest form of computer-based electronic contracting. Origin of data messages under UK legislations In England and Wales, it is also difficult to determine when and where the electronic communications are sent from. English legislation requires some physical manifestation of the subject matter, or the parties intent. Its not much important to search for the time of place where the electronic communication generated, but several legal aspects relied on these two factors. Electronic communications, in their nature, are intangible to the outer world, unless stored of physically manifested by electronic equipment. Even if the electronic data is stored in the device, it can be easily deleted or modified without leaving any trace of the interference. This is a major issue of evidential value of electronic data, for example, as to the existence of a contract or a contractual term. Evidential validity of data messages under UK legislations Electronic evidence has been subjected to special legislation in England for many years. The admissibility of data message in England was governed by a lot of rules, much more than those of traditional paper evidence. Section 5 of the Civil Evidence Act 1968 provides that a computer-produced document shall be admissible as evidence, provided that the proponent can demonstrate its authenticity. The person who wishes to submit electronic evidence must establish that: The document was prepared during a period over which the computer regularly stored or processed information; Over the relevant period of time, information of this type was regularly supplied to the computer; The computer was operating properly; and The information contained in the statement reproduces information supplied to the computer. Without any of the above conditions, the electronic evidence would not be admissible. On the part of the proponent, not only he must prove the authenticity of the evidence, but also its reliability, often times by acquiring a certificate signed by a person responsible for the operation of the computer. Time and place of data messages under UK legislations Time of data message under UK legislations In England and Wales, as well as many other countries, the courts face with a difficult issue of which rule between the dispatch rule and the receipt rule should be apply in certain cases. In fact, the solution for a previous case does not necessarily solve the problem in a new situation. Time of dispatch Some argued that the dispatch rule (originated from the postal rule) should be applied in those cases dealing with e-mail communication, but not to online transactions. The reason for this is because they observed that e-mail communications share many feature with the old-time postal communication, for example, after the sender hit the sending button, he or she has very little control over what would happen to the message, or not at all. In other words, he did all he could in messaging the other party. Of course there might be some delay or problem as the two parties often do not communicate simultaneously. It was suggested that a modified postal rule should be used to deal with the formation of nowadays electronic communications. Time of receipt Should the court apply the receipt rule for contractual formation, the crucial issue would be the time of receipt of that piece of communication. In fact, one would find a lot of identifiable point along the communication process that would fit the receipt category. The Electronic Commerce Directive of UK does not deal with the contractual acceptance but it does shed light on the time of receipt of a message. Article 11 of the Directive provides for the situation where an order was placed with a service provider and that service provider must acknowledge the receipt of that order. The order and acknowledgement of receipt are deemed to be received when the parties to whom they are addressed are able to access them. The phrase able to access them was the subject of various debates. It is believed that the phrase was imported directly from regulation 11(2)(a) of the EC Directive and according to the Guidance for Business, when the message is capable of being accessed by the recipient it will be deemed received, which doesnt explain anything as to this interpretation. For instance, if a data message is sent in the middle of the night, it must be deemed capable of being accessed, but is it reasonable to require a consumer to check a message in the middle of the night? In most of the case, after dispatching, no one would expect that message to be received at that time of the day. Place of data messages under UK legislations According to the general rule, the formation place of an electronic contract would the one where acceptance was communicated to the party making the offer. In specific situations, the place of acceptance was the place where the party making the offer received the acceptance. As a matter of facts, courts must look into details of the circumstance to decide which rule should be applied. Electronic signatures under UK legislations The ECA broadly defines electronic signature as so much of anything in electronic form that is incorporated into or otherwise logically associated with any electronic communication or electronic data and purports to be so incorporated or associated for the purpose of being used in establishing the authenticity of the communication or data, the integrity of the communication or data, or both. From the above definition, an electronic signature can be broken into three elements, namely (i) so much of anything in electronic form, (ii) incorporation or logical association, and (iii) purports to be used by the individual creating it to sign. The first requirement of an electronic contract is the electronic form. This is such a broad provision so as to make sure that new concepts that are yet to be invented would be covered by the definition. The second requirement of an electronic signature is the incorporation of logical association with an electronic communication or electronic data. The signature could be deemed incorporated or logically associated by the way it is created. For example, in the process of creating a digital signature, the software could take part of the plaintext and create a message authentication code, which allows a recipient to check whether the message has been altered. As a matter of fact, the authentication code is separated from the message but at the same time incorporated into it. Another instance is where a biometric measurement is attached to a message. In this case, the biometric measurement would only function when it is associated with the message. There are many other ways to produce an electronic signature but the same principle is applied to all of them, even though the function of the electronic signature may vary from case to case. The third element of an electronic signature is the intent of authenticity by the signatory in creating the electronic signature. There are cases where the person who the signature purports to be was not the one who actually caused it to be affixed to the data. In those instances, the electronic signature failed the third requirement. In terms of the admissibility of electronic signatures required by the EU E-Signatures Directive, the definition of electronic signature in the ECA is said to be too broad.Understandably, the ECA looks to make room for technological innovation; therefore the definition was intentionally left unspecific.However, the ECA should ensure the analogous binding characteristic of an electronic contract as a handwritten one, i.e. section 7 (3) of the ECA should not allowed authenticity and integrity to be separated by going beyond the interpretation of advanced electronic signatures.It is similar to having a signature on a piece of paper on an unsigned contract and telling that the contract is signed. Moreover, section 7(3) also allows separate the data and the communication, which raise an issue of the non-repudiation characteristic which requires the integrity of both the data and the communication. Analysis on some significant cases of Electronic Contracts in United Kingdom Case 1: Golden Ocean Group Limited v. Salgaocar Mining Industries PVT Ltd. and another  EWCA Civ 265 This English case shed some light on the enforceability of a contract of guarantee where a series of documents have been duly authenticated by electronic signature of the guarantor. The facts of the case The plaintiff of this case, Golden Ocean Group Ltd (Golden Ocean), was a shipping company. The defendant was Salgaocar Mining Industries PVT Ltd (SMI). In early 2008, in reply to Golden Oceans offer to charter SMI a vessel, SMI nominated Trustworth Shipping Pte Ltd (Trustworth), a related company. The negotiations were conducted via email on the basis that Trustworth fully guaranteed by SMI. Golden Ocean later claimed that Trustworth had repudiated the charter and that it was guaranteed by SMI. The defendants argued that the email chain was insufficient to create a binding guarantee according to the Statute of Frauds. Legal issue The issue of this case was whether the email chain constituted a binding guarantee or not. Judgment of the court The court rendered a judgment for the plaintiff, agreeing that Golden Ocean had a well arguable case that the document was in writing and did not contradict the Statute of Frauds. As such, the court set forth the following reasons: First, the judge rejected the argument that the agreement between the parties was not in writing according to the Statute of Frauds. The phrase fully guaranteed by [SMI] can only be interpreted in the way that the charter party was guaranteed by SMI, instead of to be guaranteed as the case may be. Neither did the judge accept the idea that there should be some limitation to the number of documents to be permissible in the case of writing. The court emphasized that it was highly desirable that the law gives effect to the communications which are more than clearly than many negotiations between men of business, the sequence of offer, counter offer, and final acceptance by which, classically, the law determines whether a contract has been made. Regarding the signature issue, the court concluded that the contract was signed by way of the electronically printed signature of the person who sent them and it sufficed the test of a valid signature according to the Statute of Frauds. Case 2: Hall v Cognos Ltd Industrial Tribunal Case No.1803325/97 The facts of the case Hall was employed by Cognos as a sales executive. Under the employment contract, Halls expenditures incurred for travel, accommodation and other reasonable cost would be covered by Cognos, under the condition that it would not exceed 6 months. Hall failed to submit the claim within 6 months so he asked Sarah McGoun and Keith Schroeder, his line manager, whether these expired claimed was okay for him to get his recovery. The reply was Yes, it is OK. They communicated through a series of emails. Hall later submitted his request but Cognos refused to accept any payment. Legal issue The issue of this case was whether emails can suffice the writing test and be considered as signed once theyre printed out. Judgment of the court The court rejected the claim for Cognos that because the emails were not in writing and signed, they didnt have any effect. Instead, the judge concluded that emails were in writing and signed once they were printed out.  In the UK, there are three different legal territories: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. For the purpose of this chapter, the UK law or English law represents the law in England and Wales.  Anthony Burke, EU and Irish Internet Law: An Overview, 13 INTL L. PRACTICUM, Autumn 2000, at 107, 113-15  Mariam A. Parmentier, Electronic Signatures, 6 COLUM. J. EUR. L. 251, 252 (2000)  Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community Framework for Electronic Signatures  OJ L13/12, 19.1.2000.  Id., Art. 13  Jacqueline Klosek, EU Telecom Ministers Approve Electronic Signatures Directive, 4 CYBERSPACE LAW. 12 (2000).  Mincoff, M., An Overview of Electronic and Digital Signature Legislation and Regulation in the United States: Silanis Technology, 1999  Reed, C., What is a Signature?, Journal of Information, Law and Technology,2000  Murray, J., Public Key Infrastructure Digital Signatures and Systematic Risk, Journal of Information, Law and Technology.2003  Id.  Interdisciplinary Centre for Law Info. Tech., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Study for the European Commission: The Legal and Market Aspects of Electronic Signatures, 215-16 (2003).  Id. at 215  Xxx Interdisciplinary Centre for Law Info. Tech., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Study for the European Commission: The Legal and Market Aspects of Electronic Signatures, 215-16 (2003)  The most mature form of electronic contracting is electronic data exchange (EDI), which permits trading partners to exchange commercial documents electronically. Baum, M.S. Perritt, H., Electronic Contracting, Publishing and EDI Law, Wiley Law Publications: New York, 1991, at 2  Section 5(2) of the Civil Evidence Act  Ibid., Section 5(4) See Murray, A.D., Entering Into Contracts Electronically: The Real W.W.W., in Edwards, L. Waelde, C. (eds) Law and the Internet: A Framework for Electronic Commerce 2nd ed. (Hart: Portland, Oregon, 2000) at 26 and Downing, S. Harrington, J., The Postal Rule in Electronic Commerce: A Reconsideration, (2000) 5 (2) Communications Law 43  For example, the point at which an e-mail arrives at his service providers server or the point at which the e-mail is downloaded to the recipients computer  Article 11 of the Electronic Commerce Directive  Guidance for Business on the Regulations 5.29 (a)  Section 7 (2) of the ECA  See Stephen Mason, Electronic Signatures in Law, 4th edition, 2016, at 171  Section 15 (2) of the ECA provides for 3 tests to determine the authenticity of a communication or data, which are: whether the communication or data comes from a particular person or other source; whether it is accurately timed and dated; whether it is intended to have legal effect.  Section 7 of the ECA  Section 7 (2) of the ECA  This may be to satisfy Article 5(2) of the Directive that requires that electronic signatures are not denied legal effectiveness and admissibility as evidence.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Blondie was the most commercially successful band to emerge from the much-vaunted punk/new wave movement of the late '70s. The group was formed in New York City in August 1974 by singer Deborah Harry (b. July 1, 1945, Miami), formerly of Wind in the Willows, and guitarist Chris Stein (b. January 5, 1950, Brooklyn) out of the remnants of Harry's previous group, the Stilettos. The lineup fluctuated over the next year. Drummer Clement Burke (b. November 24, 1955, New York) joined in May 1975. Bassist Gary Valentine joined in August. In October, keyboard player James Destri (b. April 13, 1954) joined, to complete the initial permanent lineup. They released their first album, Blondie, on Private Stock Records in December 1976. In July 1977, Valentine was replaced by Frank Infante. In August, Chrysalis Records bought their contract from Private Stock and in October reissued Blondie and released the second album, Plastic Letters. Blondie expanded to a sextet in November with the addition of bassist Nigel Harrison (born in Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, England), as Infante switched to guitar. Blondie broke commercially in the U.K. in March 1978, when their cover of Randy and the Rainbows' 1963 hit "Denise," renamed "Denis," became a Top Ten hit, as did Plastic Letters, followed by a second U.K. Top Ten, "(I'm Always Touched By Your) Presence, Dear." Blondie turned to U.K. producer/songwriter Mike Chapman for their third album, Parallel Lines, which was released in September 1978 and eventually broke them worldwide. "Picture This" became a U.K. Top 40 hit, and "Hanging on the Telephone" made the U.K. Top Ten, but it was the album's third single, the disco-influenced "Heart of Glass," that took Blon die to number one in both the U.K. and the U.S. "Sunday Girl" hit number one in the U.K. in May, and "One Way or Another" hit the U.S. Top 40 in August. Blondie followed with their fourth album, Eat to the Beat, in October. Its first single, "Dreaming," went Top Ten in the U.K., Top 40 in the U.S. The second U.K. single, "Union City Blue," went Top 40. In March 1980, the third U.K. single from Eat to the Beat, "Atomic," became the group's third British number one. (It later made the U.S. Top 40.) Meanwhile, Harry was collaborating with German disco producer Giorgio Moroder on "Call Me," the theme from the movie American Gigolo. It became Blondie's second transatlantic chart-topper.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Contrasting Rich and Poor in Grapes of Wrath One of the ironies of SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Grapes of Wrath was that, as Ma Joad said, "If your in trouble or hurt or need -- go to poor people. They're the only ones that'll help -- the only ones."(pg 335) The irony is that if you need something you have to go to the people who have nothing. There are many examples of this in the book. The first example of this is at the truck station in chapter 15 when the restaurant owner and waitress give the family bread at a discounted rate, and candy two for a penny when it is actually nickel candy. The truck drivers then leave large tips to the waitress. Neither the truck driver nor the restaurant owner and waitress are very rich but they are generous anyway. In chapter seventeen the person at the car dump gives Tom and Al things for way discounted rates. Ma Joad is also an example of this. The Joads are poor and yet they give what little they have to the children who need it. They also stay and help the Wilsons when it just slowed them down. Another example is when the small land owner that Tom first gets work warns them of the plot of the Farmer's Association to raid the government camp. The clerk in the company store in chapter twenty-four is also generous, lending Ma ten cents so that she can get sugar for the coffee. These acts of generosity are contrasted to how the rich people are trying to rip off the migrants. Chapter seven shows how the car dealer rip the people off by selling them pieces of junk for high prices. They use cheep tricks such as pouring sawdust into the gears or transmission to cut down the noise of the car and hide problems. They take advantage of the tenant farmers ignorance of cars and interest rates to make a profit. Chapter nine shows how junk dealers bought all the things from the tenant farmers at a very low price. The farmers have to leave and can't take the stuff with them, so they take advantage of the fact that the farmers have no choice but to sell them at whatever price they name. Chapters nineteen, twenty-one, and twenty-five are general chapters that show how the large land owners are cheating the migrants and smaller land owners to make a larger profit.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Computers and Medical Database Advances Computers have revolutionized the way we do things in the medical field from the devised used the pharmacy to the databases used to keep patients medical records. Pharmacies, offices and hospitals have been able to take advantage of the benefit computers can bring to their companies. Computers make it easy to keep tack of their patients, as well as what medication they take in order to make it easier for everyone. Computers can be used to advance the uses of health care systems in hospitals in more ways than one. One of the first systems that use computers to store and transfer information for the use of giving advice and solving clinical problems is the HELP system. (Fitzmaurice) This system not only alerts physicians to abnormal and changing clinical values but can generate reminders for physicians. For example: A trial by Indiana University showed that tests for respiratory ailments were reduced by ten to thirty percent because the computer was able to remind the doctor to give a flu vaccine to those patients. In Beth Israel Hospital in Boston computers were also able to alert physicians when kidney failure was a risk. (Fitzmaurice) Another way that computers can benefit physicians in hospitals is the costs it can decrease. Physicians are able to order tests by computers which can automatically display cost affective testing. At Wishard Memorial Hospital in Indianapolis they saved $594 per admission when using computers to write all impatient orders.(Fitzmaurice) That is a total of more than three million dollars in projected hospital savings. Also the physician ordered fourteen percent fewer tests when using computers because the computer was able to show test results, test prices and abnormal results. (Fitzmaurice) By being able to write programs for computers that can contain a database full of patients makes it easier for everyone. In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s in order for pharmacies to process third party payors, it had to be done the old fashion way-via paper. With millions of people rushing to the pharmacy to get their medication, a more efficient way had to be established to process claims.(Sardinha) During the middle of the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s pharmacies were able to establish online computer claims making it easier to bill insurance companies online.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction Suicide bombing, a major terror strategy of terrorists is, if not the most, one of the most gruesome acts anybody can commit. It is outright crazy and stupid. One must be beside the normal to be entertaining such a thought in mind. Ironically, fanatics who have committed and attempted suicide bombings in the past, were deemed normal until the day when the execution of their ultimate plans were made public whether foiled or completed. People who are afflicted with mental disorder may, as other people, travel for the same reasons Ã¢â¬â vacation, visiting friends or relatives, business, recreation, and sometimes for religious or spiritual focus (Miller & Zarcone, 1968). Others indeed may travel for reasons other than the normal Ã¢â¬â for reasons triggered by malformed mental state such as the men who carried out the 911 attack of the Twin Towers in New York. Along the 911 attack, suicide bombing through aircraft came to prominence resulting in the stirring of the awareness among the international public of the fact that the regular traveler might not be that Ã¢â¬Å"regularÃ¢â¬ anyway. It is probable that some of them are driven by excessive anger or motivated by utopic hope as taught in the communities wherein they have pledged their life allegiance (Silke, 2003). Just a few months ago, upon the return of former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to her home country, 124 were killed and 320 plus got injured as a result of another suicide bombing. The bomber threw grenades among crowds of people and afterwards blasted himself to death (CNN update, Oct.18, 2007). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to think of sensible reasons why a sane person (if that person was ever considered sane by his colleagues) has committed such an act in the first place. To spend and expend oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self for a noble cause is commendable only if they benefit people outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own community. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never an ideal to advance a religionÃ¢â¬â¢s cause at the expense of the lives of other people. A suicide bomber is demented in that even in the logic of religion, all religions presupposed a benevolent god who is both powerful and loving. There must be distortions somewhere within the suicide bomberÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to have associated the act of delivering a bomb and acts of piety. Rationale of the argument ~Understanding mental health The majority of theories and models of human behavior fall into one of two basic categories: internal perspective and external perspective. The internal perspective considers the factors inside the person to understand behavior. People who subscribe to this view understand behavior as psychodynamically oriented. Behavior is explained in terms of the thoughts, feelings, past experiences and needs of the individual. The internal processes of thinking, feeling, perceiving and judging lead people to act in specific ways. This internal perspective implies that people are best understood from the inside and that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is best interpreted after understanding their thoughts and feelings (Jourad, 1963). The other category of theories takes an external perspective. This focuses on factors outside the person to understand behavior. External events, consequences of behavior, environmental forces to which a person is subject, are emphasized by this external perspective. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s history, value system, feelings and thoughts are not very important in interpreting actions and behavior. Kurt Lewin for instance considered both perspectives in saying that behavior is a function of both the person and the environment (Tiffin,& McCormick, 1958). Man is a social being and as such his personality is viewed from the society and culture where he belongs. A society represents a geographical aggregate and has boundaries, similar government or a group of persons in meaningful interaction and engaged in social relationship. Personality is the individualizing traits of man which constitute his singularity and differentiate him from any other human being. The three determinants of personality: 1] biological heritage which has direct influence on the development of personality. This includes musculature, the nervous system, and the glands; 2] E.Q. factor describes qualities like understanding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, empathy for the feelings of others, and the Ã¢â¬Å"regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living (Gibbs, 1995);Ã¢â¬ 3] environmental factors. Taking everything normal, environment plays an important role in personality development. Environmental factors are cultural environment, social environment, home and family, culture, status and role and social agent. Many of menÃ¢â¬â¢s pronounced stirred-up state of mind such as fear, anger, disgust, and contempt, have posed the question, why? What has caused such a reaction? What has brought a change to his/her behavior? What is the frustration that has brought about such behavior? In the world of a suicide bomber, he/she contemplates on various input or stimuli from the world he/she evolves in. There are frustrations of every form and even without these, his/her psyche or mental state functions on the basis of anything he/she receives (actively or passively) from the milieu. LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems are numerous and as long as one is alive and kicking he will always be faced with problems, be they big or small. Such problems stir-up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions or feelings which maybe pleasant or unpleasant. Physiological problems, environmental problems, personal deficiencies and psychological concerns bring on a variety of responses; some predictable, others are not. Disorganization of family life, disintegration of personality brought about by depression, great personal suffering, any of these may take any person beyond the limits of his tolerance. Man is born in a social environment surrounded by cultural norms and values. He is faced with cultural taboos and acceptable social behavior. Numerous environmental factors come to the fore which may or may not be easily overcome. One of the most difficult problems in this area is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts. Environmental frustrations cannot be avoided, for there are always certain factors in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and achievement. Psychological or internal problems are the most difficult to resolve as they are within the inner feelings of a person. One may not be able to detect his/her concerns/anxieties through his /her overt behavior. It may only be inferred from what his/her inner thoughts and feelings are but will not know what caused such a feeling. Psychological concerns of various forms represent a more serious threat to the personality of the individual than do environmental pressures. If severe enough, they may create considerable emotional tension with accompanying behavior disorders. Reacting to pressures and other concerns such as frustration varies from person to person because of their personality differences. These reactions maybe defensive, neurotic or psychotic. Most people are sympathetic to people who develop physical ailments, but regard an individual with mental disorder as Ã¢â¬Å"crazy.Ã¢â¬ At this juncture, does a suicide bomber then be considered a person with a mental disorder or deemed as Ã¢â¬Å"crazy?Ã¢â¬ definitions of mental health vary considerably. Freud when asked what he thought a normal, healthy person should do well replied Ã¢â¬Å"love and work.Ã¢â¬ Karl MenningerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1956) definition is quite similar to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"Let us define mental health as the adjustment of human beings to the world and each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness. Not just efficiency, or just contentment, or the grace of obeying the rules of the game cheerfully. It is all together. It is the ability to maintain an even temper and happy disposition. This, I think, Ã is a healthy mind.Ã¢â¬ When we therefore, try to define mental health, we have in mind the adjustment process which an individual brings into force when he is faced with a problem situation. Adjustment is defined as an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s manner of reacting or responding adequately to a perceived problem. From the standpoint of mental health, adjustment refers to a happy and socially acceptable response to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s situations. Mental health therefore, is the ability of the individual to function effectively and happily as a person in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s expected role in a group and in the society in general. It is a condition of the whole personality and is not merely a condition of the Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ as is often supposed. It is an out-growth of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s total life and is promoted or hindered by day-to-day experience, not only by major crises as some assume (McCllelland et al, 1973). Mental health is the capacity to live harmoniously in a changing environment; to face and solve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s problems in a realistic manner; to accept the inevitable, and to understand and accept oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own shortcomings as well as the shortcomings of others. In this sense, people who develop and encourage Jihad or any Ã¢â¬Å"terroristicÃ¢â¬ ideas and brainwash others to do the same, are seen people who do have unrealistic way of looking at life and their experiences. They are commonly classified as people having delusions of grandeur among others. This term refers to people who experience a bloated sense of importance or missions and oftentimes associated with corresponding persecution complexes (Jourad, 1963). They therefore harbor also a sense of anxiety that some people are out there to cut off their goals and obstruct their missions. Their resolve to deliver their target aims is even stronger the reason for their methodical and systematic way of doing things. Since they cannot accept that they must co-exist with people whose beliefs radically differ from theirs, they accept the notion that annihilation is a solution and dying a martyrÃ¢â¬â¢s death to ensure this goal is the ultimate sacrifice. This kind of mindset comes only from a frame of thinking that has been exposed only to a few options; in fact, only very narrow options. That option is the radical Islamic alternative and nothing else. When living in this world, co-existence is not just something that is talked about inside the halls of the academe: co-existence signifies a mindset that is healthy as well and free from disorders. Mental health is a matter of degree. There is no hard and fast line that separates health from illness. It is not a simple matter to divide the population into two distinct groups-those who should be institutionalized and those who should not be. Many of us at one time or another exhibit traits and pattern of behavior which if, accentuated and continuous, would necessitate psychiatric care (Jourad, 1963). Though radical a thought this may seem, and naturally sounds unrealistic, the ideal place is to set monitoring and evaluation of mental hygiene at some point in time. How to do this is going to be a big issue, expectedly. However, terrorism and the likes of suicide bombing can probably be controlled in some ironic way: by referring to them as idiosyncratic, delusional or even possessing mental disorders. Another way of classifying them is through the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM) classification system; these people are versions of psychopaths or psychotics; because the symptoms are there and they cannot function normally among any general population. ~Towards developing a Strategy or Intervention Since the argument of this paper stands on looking at the acts of a suicide bomber as acts emanating from someone with mental illness, it follows that approaches to its reduction or elimination be provided or examined as well. There are three ways of looking at developing and establishing a strategy or intervention: the preventive, therapeutic, and the curative Kolb et al, 1974). There are subtleties that engulf these three but it is good to explore these dimensions. The preventive approach is based on the principles that the best way to ensure a well-adjusted individual is to surround him with environmental influences that will enable him to develop his full potentialities, to obtain emotional stability, and achieve personal and social adequacy. The therapeutic aspect is concerned with the attempt to correct minor behavioral adjustments through the various counseling and techniques of psychotherapy, or adjust to the social/or physical environment of the person in order to help him obtain the amount of emotional security and self-confidence necessary. The curative approach is sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"preventive psychiatryÃ¢â¬ and is concerned with the detection and correction of serious but curative but behavioral maladjustments. Although this is the work of a trained clinician or psychiatrist, it is helpful for the layman to have at least a fundamental knowledge of the major types of behavioral maladjustments in order that he/she may have a basis in determining behavioral maladjustments that need the attention of competent specialists. It is therefore necessary, on a serious note, that public awareness on the nature of mental illness on a scope such as that of the course taken by the suicide bombers, coupled with detection of signs and symptoms by neighboring homes and those in the community, help diminish the threat. There are of course other paths or strategies to follow, but why not take all that is available to ensure our security (Kolb et al, 1974). References: 1. CNN, Breaking News, October 18, 2007. www.cnn.com 2. Gibbs, Nancy. 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"EQ FactorÃ¢â¬ Time International, October. 3. Gordon, Harvey, Mike Kingham, Tony Goodwin. Air travel by passengers with mental disorder. Psychiatric Bulletin (2004) 28:295-297. The Royal College of Psychiatrists. 4. Jourad, Sydney, 1963. Personal Adjustment. 2nd Ed. New York: MacMillan Company. 5. Kolb, David & Ralph K. Schwitzgebel. 1974. Changing Human Behavior: Principles of Planned Intervention. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 6. McCllelland, David C. & R.S. Steele. 1973. Human Motivation: A Book of Readings. Morristown, New Jersey, General Learning Press. 7. Menninger, Karl in Taylor, David, 2003. The concept of mental health in children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Steinkopff. Volume 12, Number 3. Pp.107-113. 8. Miller, W. B. & Zarcone, V. (1968) Psychiatric behaviour disorders at an international airport. Archives of Environmental Health, 17, 360 -365. 9. Silke, A. (2003). The psychology of suicide terrorism. In Terrorists, Victims and Society (ed. A. Silke), pp. 93 -108. Chichester: Wiley. 10. Tiffin, Joseph and Ernest McCormick J. 1958. Industrial psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Masab Mansoor 10/8/12 English III 5H Ms. Sanchez Anne Bradstreet: Uncustomary and Unique A seventeenth century poetic writer, Anne Bradstreet is a very important figure in American Literature history. Born in 1612 in England, she came to America as part of a fleet of Puritan emigrants in 1630. Bradstreet is considered by many to be the first American poet. Her writing style is typical of Puritan writing in some cases, and in other cases it is atypical of Puritan writing. Being a Puritan woman, Anne Bradstreet incorporated many ideas like religion into her writings, as religion was a fundamental, pivotal focus of Puritan society and life.In her poem Ã¢â¬Å"To My Dear and Loving Husband,Ã¢â¬ Bradstreet wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The heavens reward thee manifold, I prayÃ¢â¬ (10). In this line Bradstreet is talking about praying to the Lord and heavens about rewarding her loving husband. This poem is more romantic than typical Puritan writing. This line is an example how Bradstreet included Pur itan concepts like religion and worship even into her more personal, romantic poetic writings. In BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Upton the Burning of Our House, July 10th 1666,Ã¢â¬ Bradstreet in multiple instances wrote in a typical Puritan style, one with a focus on religion and the Lord.In lines 8-9 of the poem, Bradstreet wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"And to my God my heart did cry to strengthen me in my distress. Ã¢â¬ In this line, Bradstreet said that when her house burned down, her heart cried to God to give her strength in the tough time she was going to. Bradstreet showed how she believed in God as the one who provides strength in time of need. Also, in the same poem, Bradstreet wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou hast an house on high erect framed by that mighty ArchitectÃ¢â¬ (43-44). God is the Architect that Bradstreet wrote about in these lines, and the Kingdom of Heaven is the Ã¢â¬Å"house on high erectÃ¢â¬ .Bradstreet showed that her focus was not on her burned house, but rather the house that God has for her in His glorious Kingdom. While Bradstreet does have many cases where she wrote in a typical Puritan style, she also wrote in a style atypical to regular Puritan writing. For example, in BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"To My Dear and Loving Husband,Ã¢â¬ she wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were loved by wife, then theeÃ¢â¬ (1-2). In these lines, Bradstreet expressed her love for her husband quite explicitly and openly, which was not the typical Puritan writing style.Puritan women did not express their views and opinions publicly as it was frowned upon, especially one of such romantic content. Lines 4-5 of the same poem further show BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s poetic romanticism when she challenged other women, saying Ã¢â¬Å"Compare with me, ye women, if you can. I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold. Ã¢â¬ This open provocation in which Bradstreet challenged and dared women to compare her love for her husband to their love for their husbands was quite atypical of normal Puritan writing.Not only did Bradstreet voice her romantic views, she challenged others to compare their love to hers. This romanticism that Bradstreet constantly included in the content of this poem showed that in some cases, she displayed a writing style atypical to normal Puritan writing. Bradstreet implemented a unique writing style in her poetry, one that included aspects of typical Puritan writing, like the focus on religion, as well as aspects that were not typical of Puritan writing, including her romanticism.Both poems, Ã¢â¬Å"To My Dear and Loving HusbandÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Upon the Burning of Our House, July 10th 1666Ã¢â¬ show how Bradstreet very interestingly mixed her two styles to give a distinct feel to her poetry; the juxtaposition between the typical Puritan style and the atypical romantic style brought a unique style to her writing. Her distinctive writing is what makes her one of the most important figures in the h istory of American Literature.
One of the important global plan is to eliminate poverty by 2015 as per UN Millennium Development Goals. Every day approximately 30,000 children are losing precious lives due to living in precarious conditions. (Make Poverty History) It is high time to bring a big change in the lives of people who deserve to meet the minimum needs for living. Not just one nation or two whereas a collective effort of all people beginning from Australia to the remote parts of other nations, is required to completely eradicate poverty. Especially in Australia poverty is on the rise from 7. 6 per cent to 9.9 per cent between the period of 1994-2004 (Australian Fair Campaign) Poverty levels are at a higher rate when compared with the poverty line of UK and Ireland. In spite of the fact that AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is growing, there are two million Australians living in poverty according to (ACOSS) Australian Council of Social Service. Australia is ranked 14th in the developed world for poverty (UN Human Poverty Index) Ã¢â¬Å"There are two many areas where Australia is falling behind other OECD nationsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Governments need to ensure the benefits of the economic prosperity are shared with all AustraliansÃ¢â¬ (ACOSS President Lin Hatfield Dobbs) The following indicate the status of people in Australia as on September 2001. (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (a) There were 672,500 unemployed (officially) (b) There were 563,500 underemployed (c) 800,000 would like to work more This paper picks an issue of families living in poverty especially belonging to Australia which is a renowned nation for tourism and rich in natural resources. What are the ground reasons for continuous existence of poverty in a nation where there are industries, clean environment and beautiful landscapes which encourage foreign tourists to choose Australia as a destination point to reside either as a tourist or as an immigrant. Similarly, there are reputed educational institutions and universities in Australia which if collectively notified that a greater number of foreign students enroll for career advancements in Universities of Australia than the domestic students of Australia. This gives out a fact that, people around the world select and consider Australia as one of the best nation to opt for to reside as an immigrant, as a tourist, as a foreign student or for expansion of business ventures. An overall view about Australia as a nation produces a fact that, it invites tourists of all cultures and backgrounds and offers a multi-ethnicity atmosphere to all its residents. In the order of pursuing other priorities of economic development of nation, Australia could possibly be giving a lenient view to its domestic citizens and families in providing jobs, medical health schemes which otherwise are provided at a lesser cost in the other parts of Europe, in order to take care of its citizens as a premium issue, which is very important economic aspect that resident families are cared and nurtured after all families make societies which in turn make a healthy nation. In order to find how well and happy families are, a poll opinion was considered by Brother hood of St. Laurence in Australia which revealed that a mindset of middle class economy is prevalent and poverty is always secondary (Stewart 1996). An analysis and understanding of poverty has basically two phases. (1) a phase of listening (2) a phase of dialogue. Brotherhood has considered the poll of general public, group discussions, politicians, academics, telephone interviews, business leaders, community leaders which included both qualitative and quantitative findings. Basing on the general public opinion, the following findings were the result of BrotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢s research on poverty in Australia. Firstly and quite observantly, Brotherhood stated that poverty is least rated at 5 per cent as compared to any other issue such as unemployment, education, health, environment and other chronic issues of narcotics and games of casino or betting. The other ratings are, drugs at 25%, unemployment at 17%, divide between rich and poor at 16%, education at 13%, health at 9%, environment at 9%, gambling at 7% and poverty at 5%. Poverty line as established by Henderson in 1973 explains that an income of $62. 70 is a benchmark which is a disposable income for a family of four. (parents + two children).
Saturday, September 14, 2019
I believe Bruce Dawes poem Life Cycle is both of satirical nature and a celebration of the game of Australian Rules football in Victoria. This is shown in the use of many poetic techniques such as religious connotations; tone of the writing and by dedication to Big Jim Phelan. Throughout the poem Dawe uses several religious references such as, Ã¢â¬Å"like the voice of godÃ¢â¬ which is showing the reader that in Victoria the game of Australian Rules Football is similar to god and taken as itÃ¢â¬â¢s a religion, this quote is explaining the voice of the typical supporter screaming their encouragement to their team this also shows the dedication to a fan has to the game, and to their team, therefore this shows both a satirical attitude and a celebrationary tone. Dawes references and baseing of the poem to a life cycle is using satire to show the Victorian peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s devotion to the game by showing they see AFL as a huge part of their life cycle. He talks throughout the poem about the different stages of life and their relating stage to their support of the AFL and their club. These references indicate that the poem is of a satire tone One of the key parts of the poem is the dedication at the start to Dawes friends father Big Jim Phelan a former AFL player and board member and an overall fan of the game, this dedication shows that it is also a celebration of the game due to Phelans love for it To conclude Bruce Dawes poem shows both satirical and celebration natures.
Friday, September 13, 2019
SarbanesOxley Paper - Essay Example Furthermore, the law covers significant corporate issues as follows ("Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 - SOX, Investopedia" n.d.): In view of the provisions of the SOX, companies covered are required to submit report on their internal controls to ensure that they are compliant with the law in general. As per Section 404 of the Act, Chief Executive Officers and Chief Financial Officers must file Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Certification of Disclosure in Exchange Act Periodic Reports, the forms of which are published by the Securities and Exchange Commission. ("Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 - SOX," n.d.) Moreover, the said section requires management to document and evaluate the effectiveness of their internal controls over financial reporting. As part of the reports, companies must provide verification that their internal controls have been appropriately assessed. Such provisions present new challenges to businesses, particularly in terms of documentation of control procedures related to information technology.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Analysis of Macadamia Nut Asian Market Expansion - Essay Example I would like to thank the scholars in this field whose works I had to access in order to complete the report. The report was useful in honing my research skills which will surely come to my use in future research reports. The report in the following pages tries to analyze the two market s of India and China to understand which the market that the company can use to step or mark its entry into the Asian market. After going through the detailed analysis it is found that China would be better to use as a stepping stone into the Asian market. This is because of the fact that chinaÃ¢â¬â¢s demographics and the market conditions would support the move. Recommendation is also put forward those bases on how to enter the Chinese market. The present report deals with a major export industry of Australia. The macadamia nut is the chosen industry for this particular project. The particular nut is a representative of the essence of Australia. The nut which represents the soil, climate and seasons of Australia has become a global success story. People all over the world adore this particular produce of Australia which is incomparable in taste, texture and the health benefits that this nut provides. Another thing that contributes to the success of the product is the commitment and dedication that is put into the production of the nut by the farmers or growers of Australia. The total trade value of the nut industry is expect6ed to touch the levels of $1 billion by the end of this year. The export earnings from the nut sales are expected to double over the next 10 years. In light of this fact the Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) limited which is one of the largest producers of Macademia nuts and the seller of the nut and pr oducts that are derived from the nuts. The company wants to expand its business in the Asian market. The target countries that the company has chosen for the entry into the Asian market the two countries of India and Africa.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Russian Literature - Assignment Example This search symbolizes the dissatisfaction in his life and the craving for someone to complete this search. Furthermore, the fragrance and moisture of flowers signify the freshness of true love. The novelty of these feelings arouses Gurov to new heights of emotions and experiences. Finally, Chekhov further uses situational irony to show how Gurov changes. Gurov falls in love with who he calls an inferior race, which actually made him part of the better race, because love changed him to become a better person. Gurov sees women as an Ã¢â¬Å"inferior raceÃ¢â¬ (362) and his first impression of Anna is that she is pathetic. By being in love with an inferior race, the situational irony is that Gurov has transformed into a Ã¢â¬Å"better race,Ã¢â¬ where he sheds the monotony of his life behind and experiences something so passionate and liberating. However, it remains ironic that Gurov keeps this life a secret, when it is only the life he ever wanted to live.
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Casino Management - Essay Example But the public needs to see that we are ahead of the curve on this issue. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t sit back and do nothing. So, the bad news is that as floor employees, you are going to have to step up your ID checks. I know that some of you will say, business is business, but we are talking about the reputation of the casino here. The good news is, that if we step up ID checks by only 25%, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll catch a lot more minors. Our goal is to check everyone. For every employee who successfully ID checks a minor, we will be issuing a cash bonus. I have some bad news for you. As you may have seen in the local paper, there was an expose on our casino and several other casinos on the same street. Apparently, kids from Pennsylvania as young as 16 have been taking road-trips to these casinos in order to drink and gamble, and in most cases, they were successful. ID checks are not just a formality; as you know, they are vital to a casino maintaining its status and reputation. Big time gamblers are not going to want to frequent an establishment that lets young teenagers have run off the casino floor. This situation could lead to a loss in revenue for the casino, as well as legal problems. I know that as a local business owner and a member of the town council, you are aware of the importance of casinos to our economy. In order that we continue to have the friendship of Fine Auto Parts, I am taking this proactive step to inform you that ID checks are our new top priority. We are not just talking about a significant change; we are enacting it. All floor employees have now been advised that they are to check everyone coming in the doors for ID and that there will be cash bonuses for catching these minors who are trying to sneak into our casino and ruin ourÃ reputation.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Monday, September 9, 2019
Legalization of Marijuana - Essay Example This is applicable to marijuana too. It is often shunned as an intoxicating drug that people often abuse. However, there is an overshadowed side to this drug, which gives reason for its legalization as a medical substance. If people recognized marijuana for its numerous beneficial uses for patients of glaucoma, cancer, aids, and multiple sclerosis, they would realize that these provide substantial ground for the legalization of marijuana. One use of marijuana, which greatly justifies its use as a medical substance, is its use for glaucoma patients (Klein, pp. 19-27). Glaucoma is a disease in which the patient experiences elevated Ã¢â¬ËintraocularÃ¢â¬â¢ pressure in the eye, which often causes nerve damage, which slowly blinds the patient. Marijuana contains an active ingredient, THC, which helps reduce this pressure. This does not mean that marijuana cures the disease, but it helps delay the onset of the worst of its symptoms, which include vision impairment and blindness (Jacob, pp. 75-120). Experts often criticize this use of marijuana, saying that it is not worth the risk of using such an intoxicating and psychoactive substance for glaucoma patients when it does not even cure their condition. ... 1-3). The University of California has published several findings about this use for marijuana, which effectively alleviates the extreme pain that these diseases cause a task, which other painkillers are often ineffective at doing (Doheny, pp. 22-30). This is especially relevant for patients suffering from the final stages of cancer, where cure is not possible, and their pain is at its worst. The only thing that anyone can do for the dying patient at this point is to ease his or her suffering. Given marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness in alleviating such pain, the authorities should consider legalizing such a medical use of the substance. The argument of the side effects of marijuana, such as addictiveness or intoxication is irrelevant in this case, since the patient would not be any worse off due to such side effects, given their condition. For other cases, such as patients in pain due to AIDS, spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis, the patients are often helpless in pain and thu s if marijuana helps alleviate their pain, this greatly outweighs the negative side effects it might have on them (Jacob, pp. 75-120). These reasons provide further ground for the legalization of marijuana despite it negative characteristics. Another use that justifies the use of marijuana is a slightly less favored one. It springs from a side effect which marijuana has, which is that it increases the appetite of the person who smokes it (Farrow, Rees & Worrington-Roberts, pp. 79:218). This characteristic is, however, a useful find for people suffering from HIV. These patients suffer from extreme weight loss due to their condition, a symptom known as Ã¢â¬ËwastingÃ¢â¬â¢. This includes a loss of appetite, which is followed by the deterioration of the
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Brief Memo - Case Study Example As the adviser firm, Harris Associates LP was sued by Jones amongst other investors, citing Ã¢â¬â section 36(b) of the Act. From receiving an adverse finding as passed by the Illinois District Court, Jones appealed, gaining a hearing in the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals (Jones v. Harris Associates L.P., 08-586 1). However, in the end, the majority of the Court of Appeals (Maryland) did rule against the claim, citing the lack of judicial authority; regarding the legal regulation of investment company fees. In explanation, the court was of the view that the best regulator of Ã¢â¬ËfeesÃ¢â¬â¢ was the free market-arena itself. Further rejecting the provided line of argumentation, the court also viewed government as not being Ã¢â¬Ëin-placeÃ¢â¬â¢; in regard to making such an assessment. Ultimately, the ideal portrayed was that of a strong free-market approach, as opposed to legislative interpretation of prevailing aspects of the existing economy (Jones v. Harris Associates L.P). In effect, the court ruled that when the settling entity/ person charged with a given trustÃ¢â¬â¢s (firm) administration made a given decision, it was in essence conclusive. This is in reference to Ã¢â¬â The Contractarian Basis of the Law of Trusts, 105 Yale L.J. 625 (1995) (Jones v. Harris Associates L.P., 08-5 86 1). In the case of the Ã¢â¬â Serita J. Weathersby v. Kentucky Fried Chicken National Management Co., No. 92-2360 (1993/4) Case [326 Md. 663, 670, 607, A.2d 8 (1992)] Ã¢â¬â essentially concerns discrimination within the employment sector, public accommodation and housing. Under focus is the aspect of employment litigation whereby the Maryland Court of Appeals did, and continues to emphasize, on the need of tort law; in regard to intentional infliction of emotional distress, to be utilized sparingly. This should be only in cases of opprobrious behavior that is inclusive of truly outrageous/ extreme conduct; extreme to the nature of going beyond bounds of decency, and hence
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Integration of Financial Markets over past 25 years - Essay Example The world has become a smaller place and globalization has contributed towards the growth of international credit as a result of an international integration of the goods and services market and the growing presence of multinational companies. The GNP has seen more than twice growth in the share of imports and exports for most nations which in turn brought about a large increase in international lending and borrowings for the purpose of addressing the needs of current account transactions (Bekeart, Harvey, and Lumsdaine, 2002). Open financial markets have been regarded as an opportunity for expansion of investorÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio diversification scope and therefore has a higher potential for greater risk-adjusted return. For the country, smooth consumption is allowed and saves them from potential shocks. Financial flows also result in the flow of capital with potential welfare gains and growth and international risk sharing. The costs of financial integration might also be as drastic as its benefits. Countries run the risk of reversal of capital flows and the risk of increased volatility through a largely open capital market. The recent financial crisis has been an example of the drawbacks of financial integration worldwide where the financial meltdown in one country has impacted the complete global economy. Although there was some misalignment of fundamentals, the financial crisis has brought focus to the instability inherent within the financial markets as a result of the financial integration process. This calls for a stronger regulatory supervision and more stubborn financial systems (AgÃ ©nor, 2001). The paper is organized beginning with a discussion on the operational significance of international financial markets and moves on to evaluate determinants of foreign exchange markets for the long run and the short run. The paper also analyses the international stock exchange and its role and reflection on the financial integration.